free energy claims of ** Entropy Systems Inc. ** -
Sanjay Amin

Sanjay Amin of of Youngstown Ohio has gotten 1.6 million $ of investment money for a device he claims breaks the second law of thermodynamics. He claims to have a motor powered by nothing more than latent heat from the air. This page has been up for monthes, Amin knows about it, but has not made a response. A closer look is merited since extraordinary claims should need extraordinary evidence: |

**related links:**

history of most similar claims
I've studied.

Tom Napier's Free Energy
FAQ page - looks at heat based free energy claims

Report on Dennis's
fraud from PILOT ONLINE

my open $10000 prize offer for
proof of a free energy machine *(ESI has
ignored this so far)*

http://onelist.com/members/free_energy
- get on an email list for updates on information like this

see the Entropy Systems page -it's
only fair to consider their point of view as well

Skeptic's
Dictionary: review of Entropy Systems http://skepdic.com/essays/entropy.pdf

Entropy - The key
To Unlimited Resources - pro Amin info

Electronic
Design - takes a look at Amins claims

News articles about
Entropy Systems, the entropy engine
makes no sense - a private review

-------------------------

Review
by David Howe: dhowe17@hotmail.com - provided at:
http://www.phact.org/e/z/amin.htm

The Entropy Engine is a good one as perpetual motion machines go. The
blunder

is hard to find, but it's obvious once you see it.

The secret is the effect of the cylinder mean pressure and temperature on
the

radial mass distribution of the gas. As heat is added/extracted (with the

piston fixed), the polar moment of inertia of the gas (about the axis of

rotation) changes. As you heat the gas, the mass shifts inward and the

machine speeds up (like an ice skater pulling in her arms). As you cool
the

gas, the mass shifts outward and the machine slows down. There is
absolutely

no coupling between the heat and work flows in this process. In this
process,

heat energy and shaft energy are conserved independently -- there is no

interchange. It's the restrictions they place on the Amin cycle that the

compression and expansion processes are carried out at constant rotational

speed that appear to couple the heat and work and appear to convert heat

directly to shaft power. Bury this effect within some other processes,
and

it's awfully easy to miss.

Like all good perpetual motion machines, they can't demonstrate any net

energy production. All they can do is "*demonstrate*" a
"reduction" in the

input power through a contorted test procedure. A working model that
produces

net power will "j*ust take a little more time*". And
money.

BTW, I know one of the people quoted in one of the newspaper articles the

Entropy Systems people use to promote their machine. When I emailed him
for

a comment, his response was:

*All I know about the engine is what I saw
on my brief excursion to*

* their web site. All I told the press is the
operating principles of*

* a heat engine, using a Carnot engine as an
example. I have not heard*

* of the Amin cycle, and with the diversion and
distraction brought on*

* by my recent attempt to educate those who
have contacted me, I am*

* going close off all communication with the
outside world.*

So, one of the experts they quote as verifying the operation of the engine

hasn't ever seen one, nor has he ever heard of the "Amin
cycle". Beyond

the blatant violation of thermodynamic laws and their inability to demonstrate

net output power, this fact doesn't bode well for the credibility of Entropy

Systems.

Another point - it looks very suspicious when he only runs it for 20
minutes

and then stops it - "to prevent stress on his prototype's parts."

Watch your wallets, folks. If these Entropy Systems guys aren't
frauds,

they're merely misguided fools. Either way, they seem to be raking in the

bucks. Sad. Move over Lee,
Newman, Keeley, there's
a new kid in town.

Even with perfectly frictionless operation, Amin's machine wouldn't

work. The key is how the radial mass distribution of the gas (and

therefore its polar moment of inertia about the shaft) changes when

heat is added and extracted.

Amin correctly mentions that every bit of energy used to speed up the

piston and cylinder is recovered when slowing it down. However, this

simple conservation does not apply to the gas in the cylinder, so it

can't be neglected quite as simply.

Take the heat addition process: As heat is added to the air in the

cylinder, the radial mass distribution shifts inward, wanting to speed

the shaft up (conservation of angular momentum). To maintain constant

speed, shaft power must be removed. The same goes for the heat rejection

process at the other end of the cycle. As heat is rejected, power must

be supplied to the shaft to keep it from slowing down. I believe the

shaft energy/heat energy ratio at the two ends of the cycle are

different (but the First Law still holds if you count all the terms).

So, neglecting the shaft terms altogether while considering

the same amount of heat rejected as added, gives the appearance of a

magical direct conversion of heat into work in direct violation of the

Second Law.

The key is in restricting the heat addition and extraction processes

to occur at constant speed, without taking into account the shaft

input and output power to maintain the constant speed.

I've said it before and I'll say it again: Amin's perpetual motion

machine is a good one. It actually takes some thought and pencil

pushing to find the "gotcha".

review
by James Kuipers

James Kuipers

Following my earlier comments on the entropy engine and those of D.Howe,

here is my breakdown of Amins contraption in terms of classical

dynamics, for those of you who haven"t completely forgotten their

freshman physics. While Howe provide an excellent qualitative skeleton,

my aim is to add some quantitative meat to the bones.

The physicist's preferred tool for cracking a nut like this is the use

of small variations in the variables. The variables in this case are the

rotational speed of the gas, **w**, and the position of the piston, **h**.
For

any particular combination of w and h, the air mass will have a uniquely

determined density distribution throughout the enclosure if we assume

adiabatic or isothermal conditions. (Amin conveniently includes both in

his closing remark.) For this distribution one can calculate the polar

moment of inertia **I(w,h)** and from that the angular momentum **b(w,h)**
which

is simply the product of **I** and **w**: **b=I.w**. Therefore
for each combination

of **w** and **h** there is one and only one value for b, described by
the

function **b(w,h)**. Mathematical rigor places a few other restrictions on

the behavior of **b(w,h)** but they are irrelevant here.

Starting with the well-known equation **M=db/dt** where **M** is the
moment or

torque applied to the drive shaft of the vessel and **db/dt **is the

derivative of **b** with respect to time, we can step through the Amin cycle

and derive expressions for the amount of work **dW** put in during each

consecutive step. Adding up the expressions we end up with

**dW=dw.dh.db/dh **where **dw=w2-w1, dh= h1-h2** and **db/dh** is the
partial

derivative of **b(w,h)** with respect to **h**. Obviously the expression
can be

integrated over large changes in the variables.

It is also possible to look at the work from the piston end and show

that the outcome is identical, but to to do this the force on the piston

must be mathematically linked to **db/dh** which - as far as I can see - is

only possible after the geometry has been defined. However the

derivation above is generally applicable and can easily be tested for a

simple mechanical analogue such as a swirling weight on the end of an

elastic string. Unfortunately it is impossible to reproduce the detailed

derivation in simple ASCII characters but I will make it available as a

.jpg or a .pdf file as soon as possible.

This elegantly simple equation puts it all in a nutshell. As pointed out

by Howe there is energy flowing in or out through the drive shaft at

every step. Conservation of angular momentum - the law that Amin

conveniently forgot to mention - requires that when the piston extracts

the gas and so reduces its moment of inertia, the vessel will want to

accelerate in order to maintain its angular momentum. Amin explicitly

chooses to maintain the angular speed so this accelerating torque is

transferred to the external system that stores the energy - whatever

that may be. During the compression stroke the converse takes place. The

net result is that for each cycle **dW=dw.dh.db/dh** is input through the

vessel drive shaft and (under ideal conditions) comes out at the piston

end.

In the next installment I propose to take a closer look at the mechanical

construction of this contraption.

Better start packing before it's too late, Sanjay! BTW, where's the

patent covering the entropy engine?

To be continued .........

================

Two weeks ago the dutch weekly "Technisch Weekblad" published a
short article on

the entropy engine, quoting the respectable professional monthly

"Energietechniek". Both have swallowed ESI's bait - hook, line and
sinker. This

is the first time I came across the entropy engine. I immediately sent
out

e-mails to both telling them to wake up. The first one printed my message last

thursday and the other one told me they are working on a follow-up. However

during the phone conversation I found that they are still not fully convinced

it's a cunning fraud. Next I sent an e-mail to ESI accusing them of fraud and

demanding public rectification or else I would notify federal and state

authorities. The response was swift and dispelled any remaining doubts about

their intentions:

*"Thank you for your email. Please expose us to
the Federal and State*

*authorities. I believe they will come after you. We know what we have.
Please go*

*back and study some thermodynamics and then before you make any
comments."*

This response and the contents of their website made me decide not to waste any

effort on a technical discussion with them. One of their references points to a

recent newspaper article in the "Tribune Chronicle". It mentions that
Youngstown

State University Foundation is one of the 50 shareholders. My message to YSUF

asking them how they perceive the entropy engine has not been answered to date.

At this point I started scouring the web for persons or groups trying to
expose

ESI and and found your site. I agree that ESI should be combated with their own

weapons, i.e. publicity on the internet and elsewhere. In my view the most

important ammunition would be a thorough analysis of this Amin Cycle, to be
made

available on the web, that can be referred to by anyone looking for expert

backing in discussions with others.

I have started work on such a theoretical analysis and have nearly completed

calculations on a rigid body analogue that should demonstrate how part of the

work done on the flywheel is stored as potential energy of the mass in the

gravitational field of the rotation, to be passed straight on to the piston

without showing up as kinetic energy. This is the essential step that Amin

fluffs over when he blurbs "For all steps (the kinetic energy) is constant
and

cancels out". I have also started the full analysis for a compressible

medium but the calculation looks like becoming a horrendous mass of exponents -

nevertheless I am sure it can be done.

Ideally such an analysis should (also) be published in a respected
scientific

journal (preferably co-authored by a Nobel prizewinner - by sheer coincidence,
as

I draft this letter, this year's laureate dutchman Gerard 't Hooft is actually

giving a lecture in the same building I am now in!). If you know of any other

person working along these lines please point him or her out to me.

I must confess grudgingly that the closer I examine Amins work, the more I
look

on it as an almost elegant work of criminal art, like a well-made forgery. He

even has the cheek to invent a new law (the Ideal gas law) and mention offhand

that "Test data give us enough evidence to expand the domain of the Second
Law

of thermodynamics into the realm of acceleration (gravity).". Now this is
a

challenge I for one cannot resist.

It is so much more instructive and fun than any game and victory is so much
more

rewarding.

Feel free to post this on the email list; I haven't got round to delving
into

that yet. And keep up the good work!

James Kuipers more thorough review of Amin's claims

From: Tim Nye <nyet@mcmaster.ca>

Hi,

I came across another page discussing the Amin Cycle,

http://skepdic.com/refuge/entropysystems.html, and this one has a complete

theoretical analysis of the Amin Cycle by Prof. Dr. Gerhard W. Bruhn, a

mathematics professor in Germany. The analysis, in

http://skepdic.com/essays/entropy.pdf,
points out some fatal flaws in the

Amin Cycle, and shows why it can never work.

Bruhn's paper also lists a test data page,

http://www.entropysystems.com/Testing.htm,
on Entropy System's site that

doesn't appear to be accessible from the homepage.

It's quite a creative interpretation of experimental results.

Interestingly, in the "Measurement of temperature" section, Amin
claims

"ESI22 does not have a heat sink." However, if you look at the
provided

drawings of the machine,

http://www.entropysystems.com/downloads/schema~1.pdf,
it very obviously

does have cooling fins on the cylinder.

And, it looks like Amin has been more successful than the intro on your

page suggests -- he appears to have gotten $3.4 million over seven years,

including money from the Youngstown State University Foundation. (See

http://www.entropysystems.com/downloads/TribuneChronicle91299.pdf
)

The Amin Cycle also turns up at

http://www.oilcity.org/research/amin/amincyc.htm
This page has links to

the patents that were mentioned in the Amin press releases, which,

incidentally, show a device that looks nothing like the entropy engine.

Keep up the good work,

Tim Nye

Note James Kuipers has a more thorough review of Amin's claims

Note: as of 5/1/00, I have not heard back from Amin's company after repeated
efforts to get their point of view to post. I've also tried to ask them
to take part in reviewing evidence from their claims.

back to Eric's main Dennis Lee page and information on Joe Newman's Free Energy Promises

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How you too can get
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**pages exposing ****Joe Newman
and Dennis Lee who some people suspect of leading a nationwide
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Comments can be sent to eric@voicenet.com I'm
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