HyCoal: THE NEW CLEAN BURNING COAL WITH
Extracted from a paper written by Dr. R. M. Santilli
Issued October 2002, revised November
2004, August 2007
Coal is no longer environmentally
acceptable as a fuel because of excessive pollutants in its combustion
exhaust. These pollutants are mainly "unburned" hydrocarbons (HC). The
current methods of coal combustion release only part of its energy
content; the rest is released in the exhaust through incomplete
combustion. An improvement of the quality of the exhaust would imply an
increased use of the coal thermal content, resulting in higher
efficiency, and a higher energy release from a given amount of coal -
or the release of the same thermal energy from a lesser amount of coal.
Most past efforts to render
combustion of coal to be environmentally acceptable were based on the
conversion of coal into a gaseous or liquid fuel (i.e., the process of
"coal gasification"; the gas was turned into a liquid form via
Fisher-Tropsch catalytic towers), a method used by the Germans during
Despite rather extensive investments
over the years since WWII, none of the coal gasification processes have
achieved environmentally acceptable results because of high hydrocarbon
combustion emission content.
There is little potential in
achieving conventional conversion of coal into a clean burning fuel
because of technical difficulties in avoiding the presence of heavy
hydrocarbons in the fuel exhaust.
USE OF THE MAGNEGAS TECHNOLOGY TO
CLEAN COAL COMBUSTION
The MagneGas Technology offers a
realistic possibility of making coal an environmentally acceptable
fuel. The approach is to improve the quality of coal combustion by
using commercially available coal, and introducing MagneGas and its
components as gaseous or liquid additives.
Among the additives available in
nature to clean coal combustion, hydrogen is by far the best; hydrogen
burns at the highest temperature and has the fastest propagation speed
of all fuels. Using hydrogen as an additive to coal will result in a
dramatic improvement of the quality of the exhaust emissions. The
combustion of hydrogen with coal increases the combustion efficiency of
the unburned coal hydrocarbons in proportion to the percentage of
hydrogen added. Achievement of the desired quality of the coal exhaust
depends on the selection of the appropriate percentage of hydrogen as
However, extracting hydrogen by
conventional methods is expensive, having a retail cost of about 50
times that of natural gas. Secondly, hydrogen is a gas and coal is a
solid, posing a difficulty in achieving a mixture or bond. These are
the basic reasons why hydrogen has not been used as an additive to coal
for the improvement of its combustion exhaust.
The patented MagneGas Technology
provides a reasonable way to improve the combustion efficiency of coal
produced in sufficient volume, MagneGas is cost competitive with
respect to existing fossil fuels;
contains 50% to 60% hydrogen; and
possesses a unique characteristic (due to magnetic polarizations of the
orbitals of its individual atoms) that causes the gas to adhere to
The adhesion of MagneGas to coal is
enhanced due to the nature of carbon atoms and their capability to
easily acquire magnetic polarizations by induction. Normally, carbon
atoms in coal have no polarization. However, when exposed to the
relatively high magnetic polarization of MagneGas, carbon atoms in coal
instantly acquire a magnetic polarization of at least some of their
peripheral orbitals. Even though one is gas and the other is solid,
MagneGas and coal bond to each other via magnetic forces among opposing
polarizations, as established by chemical analyses done in the U.S.A.
and, independently in Europe.
MagneGas is produced by
PlasmaArcFlowÂª Recycler units that convert hydrogen-rich
liquid wastes (such as city, farm or ship sewage, engine and cooking
oil waste, crude oil, etc.) into MagneGas by flowing said liquids
through a submerged electric arc between electrodes composed of a
proprietary mixture of materials including coal.
Coal is used in the production of
MagneGas, which can be an additive that would render coal into an
environmentally friendly fuel; the synergy between the MagneGas
Technology and the coal industry is obvious.
CERTIFICATION OF THE MAGNEGAS
MagneGas fuel was shown by EPA
accredited laboratory analysis results to be suitable for use as
automotive fuel without catalytic converters while surpassing all
current EPA requirements for combustion exhaust emissions, as shown
2460% of MG emission
900% of MG emission
2096% of MG emission
750% of MG emission
260% of MG emission
80% of MG emission
275% of MG emission
195% of MG emission
No EPA standard exists for Carbon
0.04% of MG emission
0.04% of MG emission
No EPA standard exists for Oxygen
The data were obtained using a Honda
Civic adapted to run on natural gas and used with MagneGas without any
change in timing and stochiometric ratio. The data on gasoline were
obtained via the use of an identical Honda Civic running on gasoline.
All data were obtained using the complex EPA routine simulating various
city and mountain driving conditions.
The quality of MagneGas exhaust is
dramatically better than that of natural gas and gasoline. MagneGas
exhaust is much lower than EPA requirements; has about 50% less green
gases (CO 2) than gasoline exhaust; and contains 9% to 12 %
breathable oxygen. MagneGas is the only
known fuel whose exhaust can sustain life
(hydrogen exhaust cannot sustain life because of the lack of oxygen).
Note that the data on MagneGas could be improved by optimization of
timing and stochiometric ratio.
Based on these measurements, it is
postulated that MagneGas fuel can be used as an additive to fossil
fuels to improve their exhaust characteristics.
In first approximation it is now
possible to pre-select the desired improvement of fossil fuels exhaust
and then compute the needed percentage of MagneGas as additive from the
HY-COAL AND SUPER-HY-COAL
MagneGas Technology can be used to
clean coal combustion using the following processes with:
PROCESS I: Use of MagneGas as
Additive in a Coal Furnace.
International Patents Pending
The first measurable results were obtained by simply injecting MagneGas
into the coal flame in a furnace. In this case, the hydrogen content of
MagneGas burned the un-combusted HC and CO content of coal exhaust, and
the oxygen content of MagneGas decreased the oxygen depletion caused by
coal combustion. The desired quality of the coal combustion exhaust
depends on the selected percentage of MagneGas as a combustion
PROCESS II: Production of the new
HyCoal with MagneGas Additive.
International Patents Pending.
The second process uses a new type of coal called HyCoal because of the high content of hydrogen contained under
the magnecular bonds. HyCoal can be produced by impregnating ordinary
coal with MagneGas at high pressure. Despite its gaseous nature, a
significant percentage of MagneGas remains bonded to coal with a
minimal vapor pressure (maintained by using bags), resulting in
improvements of the coal combustion exhaust essentially similar to
those of Process I.
The new HyCoal as per Process II can
be used jointly with MagneGas additive per Process I to clean coal
combustion exhaust in existing furnaces without other changes. HyCoal
is a new type of clean burning coal that can be sold to consumers via
existing sales organizations. Due to the rapidly increasing awareness
of environmental problems by consumers, and the cost competitiveness of
HyCoal over existing coal for same thermal energy content, the sale of
HyCoal for consumer use should be well received.
PROCESS III: Production of
SuperHyCoal with MagneLiquid Additive.
International Patents Pending.
According to a chemical law, all gaseous fuels can be catalytically
liquefied in a Fisher-Tropsch Tower by the exposure of the gas to
certain metallic and other catalysts at certain pressures. This is the
process used by the German Army to product its liquid fuel during WWII
and the process is still used today for the production of Liquid
Petroleum (the liquefied version of natural gas).
The same process applies for MagneGas
that can be catalytically liquefied in a Fisher-Tropsch Tower resulting
in the new fuel called "MagneLiquid."
The cost of the catalytic liquefaction per gallon of MagneLiquid is nil
because metallic catalysts are not consumed in the process,
Fisher-Tropsch Towers are automatic and have no appreciable personnel
cost per gallon, and the amortization of the cost of the Tower per
gallon of MagneLiquid is not measurable since that cost has to be
proportioned over hundreds of millions of gallons produced over 5-7
The catalytic liquefaction of
MagneGas produces a large quantity of heat since it deals with the
transition from the gaseous to the liquid state. That heat can be used
via heat exchanges for desalting seawater by evaporation, heating up
buildings, and other uses. Finally, a Fisher-Tropsch Tower can be
easily added to the existing PlasmaArcFlow Recyclers without the
intermediary use of compressors, because PlasmaArcFlow Recycler can be
built to operate at the pressure needed for the catalytic liquefaction
Once produced, MagneLiquid can be
easily used for the impregnation of ordinary coal, resulting in a new
coal product called "SuperHyCoal"
with a percentage of hydrogen impregnation projected to be higher than
that permitted by MagneGas in HyCoal.
SuperHyCoal can be used with MagneGas
as an additive per Process I to clean the exhaust of existing coal
burning furnaces without significant modifications. Seemingly,
SuperHyCoal could be sold to consumers and have a dramatic market
1) Despite large investments over
several decades, the use of conventional technologies has failed to
process coal into an economically and ecologically acceptable fuel. It
is evident that the survival, let alone the expansion, of the coal
industry under increasing environmental restrictions requires a new
vision and technologies.
2) Hydrogen is the best additive to improve coal combustion exhaust
because of its high available flame temperature and propagation speed
that promote the combustion of the unburned hydrocarbons in coal
3) Hydrogen, as now produced, cannot be used as coal additive because
of its properties and prohibitive production cost methods (electrolysis
of water or reformations of fossil fuels).
4) The MagneGas Technology is available now for the production of a
clean burning fuel gas (containing 50% to 60% hydrogen) that is cost
competitive with respect to existing fossil fuels.
A hydrogen rich fuel is now available
for use as additive to coal that will enhance its combustibility at