POWER GENERATION FOR THE NEXT 100 YEARS
BASIC STATEMENTS ON
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
AS IT RELATES TO THE FISCHER CYCLE ENGINE.
A. IS THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS BEING VIOLATED?
1. The findings of Joule and others led Rudolf Clausius, a German physicist, to state in 1850 that: "In any process, energy can be changed from one form to another (including heat and work), but it is never created or destroyed." This is the First Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is stated in different ways by various authors. For the purpose of this report, the following statement by Rudolf Clausius is selected: "It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by external agency, to convey heat from a body at one temperature to another body at a higher temperature." The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not capable of specific proof, but is axiomatic. It follows from the Second Law that no heat engine can convert an equal or greater useful power energy from a lesser heat energy source.
2. All Perpetual Motion Machines violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and they also, do not produce useful power or work. Thermodynamic Academicians describe the Carnot Cycle Engine (Sadi Carnot in 1824) as the "Ideal Engine." The Carnot Cycle Engine is primarily based on the defunct and extinct Caloric Theory of Heat. In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli describe the Caloric Theory of Heat as follows: "That heat was matter and an imponderable fluid, which readily flowed from a body of high temperature to one of lower temperature." The downfall of the Caloric Theory of Heat was initiated by Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford in 1798. Unlike the Perpetual Motion Machines, the Carnot Cycle Engine does not violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. But, a tangible mechanical Carnot Cycle Engine is very much like all Perpetual Motion Machines, since they both produce no useful power or work. The reciprocating steam locomotive engine and the Fischer Cycle Engine are neither Perpetual Motion Machines nor Carnot Cycle Engines, because they both do not violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and they both produce useful power and work.
3. The U.S. Patent Office's Primary Examiner, Mr. Allen M. Ostrager
initially rejected the Australian Patent Application for the Fischer Cycle
Engine because he thought, "...it violated the Second Law of Thermodynamics."
Dr. Martin G. Horner, Ph.D. (OXFORD) (Chemistry & Patent Law), Patent
Attorney, and the author of the original Australian Fischer Cycle Engine
Patents, was able to demonstrate, from his personal observations and experiences,
to the satisfaction of the U.S. Patent Office that the Fischer Cycle
Engine did produce useful work, and that it did not violate the
Second Law of Thermodynamics. Since that first and only rejection,
the U.S. Office of Patents and Trademarks has registered five U.S. Patents
pertaining to the Fischer Cycle Engine research and development.
B. THE STEAM ENGINE VS. THE FISCHER CYCLE ENGINE.
1. The reciprocating steam engine is an external heat source and an external vaporization engine. Its steam vapor is produced in an external steam boiler, and the boiler's steam vapor pressure is directly applied to the top surface of the reciprocating steam engine's drive piston to produce power and work.
2. The Fischer Cycle Engine is an external heat source and an internal vaporization engine. Its steam vapor is produced inside the engine's cylinder after the high pressurized and high temperature water, in the liquid state, is directly applied to the top of the engine's drive piston. Before the liquid water is injected into the cylinder (similar to injection of fuel into a diesel engine), the water is first pressurized to a pressure (i.e., 3,100 psig), which is higher than the vapor pressure (i.e., 3,075 psig) of the water at an operating temperature of 700°F within its liquid-to-gas heat exchanger. The pressurized heated liquid water contained within the heat exchanger is directly applied to the top surface of the piston at the top of the piston's stroke in the engine's cylinder. The 3,100 psig liquid water pressure initially applies a hydraulic force to the top surface of the piston to produce work, which is analogous to the reciprocating steam locomotive engine, except that the boiler pressure of a steam locomotive is only about 125 to 250 psig.
3. After a steam engine boiler's steam pressure moves the piston throughout the piston's stroke, the steam is then discharged at the bottom of the piston's stroke as 100 percent steam vapor. This steam vapor is then transferred to a steam condenser, where the steam vapor is transformed into liquid water, to be recycled to the steam boiler. During this liquefying process, all of the steam's Latent Heat of Vaporization (70% to 80% of the initial fuel's heat energy) is wastefully discharged into the atmosphere.
4. In contrast, only about ten percent (10%) of the liquid water mass vaporizes into steam throughout the piston stoke. Therefore, nearly all of the liquid water mass that is injected into the Fischer Cycle Engine’s cylinder is discharged as liquid, to be recycled. This liquid water is returned to the water make-up pump, and is repressurized and reheated to the operating pressure and temperature for another cycle. The Fischer Cycle Engine is significant because it doesn't require licensed steam engineers nor costly and hazardous steam boilers nor wastefully release essential volumes of fresh water and heat energy into the atmosphere, as do the steam engines' large cooling towers.
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