The Elements

Name Sym Atomic Number Group Crystal Structure Atomic Weight Shells Orbitals Valence Melting Point Boiling Point Electro-Negativity Covalent Radius Ionic Radius Atomic Radius Atomic Volume First Ionization Potential Second Ionization Potential Third Ionization Potential Oxydation States Density @ 293 K Specific Heat Heat of Vaporization Heat of Fusion Electrical Conductivity Thermal Conductivity Modulus of Elasticity Coeficient of Thermal Expansion Lattice parm Lattice parm Lattice parm Pronounced Name Origin Description Discovered By Year Location Sources. Uses
Hydrogen H 1 Non-Metal Hexagonal 1.00794 1 1s1 1 -255.34C -252.87C 2.2 0.32 1.54 (+1) 0.79 14.4 cm/mol 13.5984 V -- -- 1 0.00008988 g/cm 14.304 J/gK 0.44936 kJ/mol 0.05868 kJ/mol -- 0.001815 W/cmK -- -- --     HI-dreh-jen Greek: hydro (water) and genes (generate) Tasteless, colorless, odorless gas. The most abundant element in the universe. Tenth most abundant element in the earth's crust. Henry Cavendish 1766 England Commercial quantities are produced by reacting superheated steam with methane or carbon. In lab work from reaction of metals with acid solutions or electrolysis. Most hydrogen is used in the production of ammonia. Also used in balloons and in metal refining. Also used as fuel in rockets. Its two heavier isotopes are: deuterium (D) and tritium (T) used respectively for nuclear fission and fusion.
Helium He 2 Noble Gas Hexagonal 4.002602 2 1s2 0 -272.2C @ 26 atmos. -268.934C 0 0.93 -- 0.49 19.5 cm/mol 24.5874 V 54.416 V -- 0 0.0001787 g/cm 5.193 J/gK 0.0845 kJ/mol -- -- 0.00152 W/cmK -- -- --     HEE-li-em Greek: hlios (sun). Light, odorless, colorless, tasteless inert gas. Second most abundant element in the universe. Sixth most abundant in the earth's atmosphere. Sir William Ramsey, Nils Langet, P.T.Cleve 1895 Scotland/Sweden Found in natural gas deposits & in the air (5 parts per billion) Constantly lost to space; replenished by radioactive decay (alpha particles). Used in balloons, deep sea diving & welding. Also used in very low temperature research.
Lithium Li 3 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered 6.941 2,1 [He] 2s1 1 180.54C 1342C 0.98 1.23 .76 (+1) 2.05 13.10 cm/mol 5.3917 V 76.638 V 122.451 V 1 0.53 g/cm 3.6 J/gK 145.920 kJ/mol 3.00 kJ/mol 0.108 10^6/cm ohm 0.847 W/cmK 10 10 MPa 46 10^-6 K^-1 3.5101     LITH-i-em Greek: lithos (stone). Soft silvery-white metal. Lightest of metals. Accounts for only 0.0007% of the earth's crust. Johann Arfwedson 1817 Sweden Obtained by passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride and from the silicate mineral called spodumene [LiAl(Si2O6)]. Used in batteries. Also for certain kinds of glass and ceramics. Some is used in lubricants.
Beryllium Be 4 Alkali Earth Metal Hexagonal 9.012182 2,2 [He] 2s2 2 1287C 2472C 1.57 0.90 .45 (+2) 1.40 5.0 cm/mol 9.3226 V 18.211 V 153.893 V 2 1.848 g/cm 1.82 J/gK 292.40 kJ/mol 12.20 kJ/mol 0.313 10^6/cm ohm 2.00 W/cmK 301 10 MPa 11.3 10^-6 K^-1 2.286   3.584 beh-RIL-i-em Greek: beryllos, "beryl" (a mineral). Hard, brittle, steel-gray metal. Lightest rigid metal. Formerly called glucinium (Gl) for its sweet but deadly taste. Fredrich Whler, A.A.Bussy 1798 Germany/France Found mostly in minerals like beryl [AlBe3(Si6O18)] and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Pure beryllium is obtained by chemically reducing beryl mineral. Also by electrolysis of beryllium chloride. Its ability to absorb large amounts of heat makes it useful in spacecraft, missiles, aircraft, etc. Emeralds are beryl crystals with chromium traces giving them their green color.
Boron B 5 Non-Metal Rhombohedral 10.811 2,3 [He] 2s2 2p1 3 2079C 4000C 2.04 0.82 .23 (+3) 1.17 4.6 cm/mol 8.2980 V 25.154 V 37.93 V 3 2.34 g/cm 1.02 J/gK 489.70 kJ/mol 50.20 kJ/mol 1.0e-12 10^6/cm ohm 0.270 W/cmK 441 10 MPa 4.7 10^-6 K^-1 8.80   5.05 BO-ron From Arabic and Persian words for borax. Hard, brittle, lustrous black semimetal. Exists in the earth's crust at an average proportion of about 10 parts per million. Sir H. Davy, J.L. Gay-Lussac, L.J. Thnard 1808 England/France Obtained from kernite, a kind of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O). High purity boron is produced by electrolysis of molten potassium fluroborate and potassium chloride (KCl). Used with titanium & tungsten to make heat resistant alloys for jets & rockets.
Carbon C 6 Non-Metal Hexagonal 12.011 2,4 [He] 2s2 2p2 2,3,4 3825C (Sublimes) 4827C 2.55 0.77 .16 (+4) 0.91 4.58 cm/mol 11.2603 V 24.383 V 47.887 V (4),2 2.62 g/cm 0.71 J/gK 355.80 kJ/mol -- 0.00061 10^6/cm ohm 1.29 W/cmK 7 10 MPa 1.0 10^-6 K^-1 2.4619   6.7080 KAR-ben Latin: carbo, (charcoal). Allotropic forms include diamonds and graphite. Sixth most abundant element in the universe. Known to the ancients Unknown Unknown Made by burning organic compounds with insufficient oxygen. For making steel, in filters, and many more uses. Radiocarbon dating uses the carbon-14 isotope to date old objects.
Nitrogen N 7 Non-Metal Hexagonal 14.00674 2,5 [He] 2s2 2p3 3,5 -209.86C -195.8C 3.04 0.75 1.71 (-3) 0.75 17.3 cm/mol 14.5341 V 29.601 V 47.448 V (3),5,4,2,1 0.0012506 g/cm 1.04 J/gK 2.7928 kJ/mol 0.3604 kJ/mol -- 0.0002598 W/cmK -- 240 10^-6 K^-1 --     NYE-treh-gen Greek: nitron and genes, (soda forming). Colorless, odorless, tasteless, generally inert gas. Fifth most abundant element in the universe. Makes up about 78% of earth's atmosphere. Daniel Rutherford 1772 Scotland Obtained from liquid air by fractional distillation. Primarily to produce ammonia and other fertilizers. Also used in making nitric acid, which is used in explosives. Also used in welding and enhanced oil recovery.
Oxygen O 8 Non-Metal Cubic 15.9994 2,6 [He] 2s2 2p4 2 -218.4C -182.962C 3.44 0.73 1.40 (-2) 0.65 14.0 cm/mol 13.6181 V 35.117 V 54.934 V -2 0.001429 g/cm 0.92 J/gK 3.4099 kJ/mol 0.22259 kJ/mol -- 0.0002674 W/cmK -- 780 10^-6 K^-1 --     OK-si-jen Greek: oxys and genes, (acid former). Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; pale blue liquid. Third most abundant element in the universe. It is the most abundant element in the earth's crust, and makes up almost 21% of the atmosphere. Joseph Priestly, Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1774 England/Sweden Obtained primarily from liquid air by fractional distillation. Small amounts are made in the laboratory by electrolysis of water or heating potassium chlorate (KClO3) with manganese dioxide (MnO2) catalyst. Used in steel making, welding, and supporting life. Naturally occuring ozone (O3) in the upper atmosphere shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation.
Fluorine F 9 Halogen Cubic 18.9984032 2,7 [He] 2s2 2p5 1 -219.62C -188.14C 3.98 0.72 1.33 (-1) 0.57 12.6 cm/mol 17.4228 V 34.97 V 62.707 V -1 0.001696 g/cm 0.82 J/gK 3.2698 kJ/mol 0.2552 kJ/mol -- 0.000279 W/cmK -- 1800 10^-6 K^-1 --     FLU-eh-reen Latin: fluere (flow). Greenish-yellow, pungent, corrosive gas. Extremely reactive. Does not occur uncombined in nature. Henri Moissan 1886 France Found in the minerals fluorite (CaF2) and cryolite(Na3AlF6). Electrolysis of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or potassium acid fluoride (KHF2) is the only practical method of commercial production. Used in refrigerants and other fluorocarbons. Also in toothpaste as sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF2); also in Teflon.
Neon Ne 10 Noble Gas Cubic: Face centered 20.1797 2,8 [He] 2s2 2p6 0 -248.67C -246.048C 0 0.71 -- 0.51 17.3 cm/mol 21.5645 V 40.962 V 63.45 V 0 0.0008999 g/cm 0.904 J/gK 1.7326 kJ/mol 0.3317 kJ/mol -- 0.000493 W/cmK -- 1900 10^-6 K^-1 --     NEE-on Greek: neos (new). Colorless, odorless, tasteless inert gas. Fourth most abundant element in the universe and fifth most abundant in the earth's atmosphere (18.18 ppm). Sir William Ramsey, M.W. Travers 1898 England Obtained from production of liquid air as a byproduct of producing liquid oxygen and nitrogen. Primarily for lighting.
Sodium Na 11 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered 22.989768 2,8,1 [Ne] 3s1 1 97.81C 882.9C 0.93 1.54 1.02 (+1) 2.23 23.7 cm/mol 5.1391 V 47.286 V 71.641 V 1 0.971 g/cm 1.23 J/gK 96.960 kJ/mol 2.598 kJ/mol 0.210 10^6/cm ohm 1.41 W/cmK 5 10 MPa 71 10^-6 K^-1 4.2908     SO-di-em Medieval Latin: sodanum, (headache remedy); symbol from Latin natrium, (sodium carbonate). Soft silvery-white metal. Sixth most abundant element in the earth's crust. Burns in air with a brilliant white flame. Sir Humphrey Davy 1807 England Obtained by electrolysis of melted sodium chloride (salt), borax and cryolite. There are few uses for the pure metal, however its compounds are used in medicine, agriculture and photography. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is table salt. Liquid sodium is sometimes used to cool nuclear reactors.
Magnesium Mg 12 Alkali Earth Metal Hexagonal 24.305 2,8,2 [Ne] 3s2 2 648.8C 1090C 1.31 1.36 .72 (+2) 1.72 13.97 cm/mol 7.6462 V 15.035 V 80.143 V 2 1.738 g/cm 1.02 J/gK 127.40 kJ/mol 8.954 kJ/mol 0.226 10^6/cm ohm 1.56 W/cmK 44.4 10 MPa 24.8 10^-6 K^-1 3.2095   5.2107 mag-NEE-zih-em From Magnesia ancient city in district of Thessaly, Greece. Lightweight, malleable, silvery-white metal. Eighth most abundant element in the universe. Seventh most abundant element in the earth's crust. Sir Humphrey Davy 1808 England Usually obtained by electrolysis of melted magnesium chloride (MgCl2) found in sea water. Each cubic mile of seawater contains about 12 billion pounds of magnesium. Used in alloys to make airplanes, missiles and other uses for light metals. Has structural properties similar to aluminium. But since it is flammable at temperatures of burning gasoline, its uses are limited.
Aluminum Al 13 Metal Cubic: Face centered 26.981539 2,8,3 [Ne] 3s2 3p1 3 660.37C 2519C 1.5 1.18 .54 (+3) 1.82 10.0 cm/mol 5.9858 V 18.828 V 28.447 V 3 2.702 g/cm 0.90 J/gK 293.40 kJ/mol 10.790 kJ/mol 0.377 10^6/cm ohm 2.37 W/cmK 70.5 10 MPa 23.1 10^-6 K^-1 4.0497     ah-LOO-men-em Latin: alumen, aluminis, (alum). Soft, lightweight, silvery-white metal. Third most abundant element in the earth's crust. Hans Christian Oersted 1825 Denmark Never occurs in free form. Obtained by electrolysis from bauxite (Al2O3). Used for many purposes from airplanes to beverage cans. Too soft in its pure form so less than 1% of silicon or iron is added, which hardens and strengthens it.
Silicon Si 14 Non-Metal Cubic: Face centered 28.0855 2,8,4 [Ne] 3s2 3p2 4 1410C 3265C 1.8 1.11 .26 (+4) 1.46 12.1 cm/mol 8.1517 V 16.345 V 33.492 V 2,(4),-4 2.33 g/cm 0.71 J/gK 384.220 kJ/mol 50.550 kJ/mol 2.52e-12 10^6/cm ohm 1.48 W/cmK 162 10 MPa 2.6 10^-6 K^-1 5.4309     SIL-i-ken Latin: silex, silicus, (flint). Amorphous form is brown power; crystalline form has gray metallic appearance. Seventh most abundant element in the universe. Second most plentiful element in the earths crust. Jns Berzelius 1824 Sweden Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 C. Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.
Phosphorus P 15 Non-Metal Monoclinic 30.973762 2,8,5 [Ne] 3s2 3p3 3,5 44.1C 277C 2.19 1.06 .17 (+5) 1.23 17.0 cm/mol 10.4867 V 19.725 V 30.18 V 3,(5),7 1.82 g/cm 0.77 J/gK 12.129 kJ/mol 0.657 kJ/mol 1.0e-17 10^6/cm ohm 0.00235 W/cmK 5 10 MPa 127 10^-6 K^-1 3.3137 10.478 4.3765 FOS-fer-es Greek: phosphoros, (bringer of light). Soft white waxy phosphorescent solid, brownish-red powder or black solid. Hennig Brand 1669 Germany Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 C. Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.
Sulfur S 16 Non-Metal Orthorhombic 32.066 2,8,6 [Ne] 3s2 3p4 2,4,6 115.21C 444.6C 2.58 1.02 .29 (+6) 1.09 15.5 cm/mol 10.3600 V 23.33 V 34.83 V 2,4,(6) 2.07 g/cm 0.71 J/gK -- 1.7175 kJ/mol 0.5e-23 10^6/cm ohm 0.00269 W/cmK 19 10 MPa 70 10^-6 K^-1 10.4650 12.8665 24.4869 SUL-fer Latin: sulphur (brimstone). Tasteless, odorless, pale yellow, brittle solid. Tenth most abundant element in the universe. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from undergound deposits by the Frasch process. Used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Chlorine Cl 17 Halogen Orthorhombic 35.4527 2,8,7 [Ne] 3s2 3p5 1,3,5,7 -100.98C -34.6C 3.16 0.99 1.81 (-1) 0.97 16.9 cm/mol 12.9676 V 23.81 V 39.611 V (1),3,5,7 0.003214 g/cm 0.48 J/gK 10.20 kJ/mol 3.203 kJ/mol -- 0.000089 W/cmK -- -- --     KLOR-een Greek: chlros (greenish yellow). Greenish-yellow, disagreeable gas. Never found in free form in nature. Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1774 Sweden Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is its most common compound. Commercial quantities are produced by electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (seawater or brine from salt mines). Used in water purification, bleaches, acids and many, many other compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).
Argon Ar 18 Noble Gas Cubic: Face centered 39.948 2,8,8 [Ne] 3s2 3p6 0 -189.2C -185.7C 0 0.98 -- 0.88 23.9 cm/mol 15.7596 V 27.629 V 40.74 V 0 0.0017824 g/cm 0.520 J/gK 6.447 kJ/mol 1.188 kJ/mol -- 0.0001772 W/cmK 3 10 MPa 618 10^-6 K^-1 --     AR-gon Greek: argos (inactive). Colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. It is the third most abundant element in the earth's atmosphere and makes up about 1%. Sir William Ramsey, Baron Rayleigh 1894 Scotland Continuously released into the air by decay of radioactive potassium-40. Pure form is obtained from fractional distillation of liquid air. Used in lighting products. It is often used in filling incandescent light bulbs. Some is mixed with krypton in fluorescent lamps. Crystals in the semiconductor industry are grown in argon atmospheres.
Potassium K 19 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered 39.0983 2,8,8,1 [Ar] 4s1 1 63.25C 759.9C 0.82 2.03 1.51 (+1) 2.77 45.46 cm/mol 4.3407 V 31.625 V 45.72 V 1 0.862 g/cm 0.75 J/gK 79.870 kJ/mol 2.334 kJ/mol 0.139 10^6/cm ohm 1.024 W/cmK 2.4 10 MPa 82 10^-6 K^-1 5.247     pe-TASS-i-em English: pot ash; symbol from Latin: kalium, (alkali). Soft, waxy, silver-white metal. Eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust (20,900 ppm). Occurs only in compounds. Sir Humphrey Davy 1807 England Found in minerals like carnallite [(KMgCl3).6H2O] & sylvite (potassium chloride, KCL). Pure metal is produced by the reaction of hot potassium chloride and sodium vapors in a special retort. Used as potash in making glass & soap. Also as saltpeter, potassium nitrate (KNO3) to make explosives and to color fireworks in mauve. Formerly called kalium (K). Vital to function of nerve and muscle tissures.
Calcium Ca 20 Alkali Earth Metal Cubic: Face centered 40.078 2,8,8,2 [Ar] 4s2 2 839C 1484C 1 1.74 1.00 (+2) 2.23 25.9 cm/mol 6.1132 V 11.871 V 50.908 V 2 1.55 g/cm 0.63 J/gK 153.60 kJ/mol 8.540 kJ/mol 0.298 10^6/cm ohm 2.00 W/cmK 21 10 MPa 22.3 10^-6 K^-1 5.5886     KAL-si-em Latin: calx, calcis (lime). Fairly hard, silvery-white metal. Fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust (41,500 ppm). Occurs only in compounds. Sir Humphrey Davy 1808 England Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts. Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.
Scandium Sc 21 Transition Metal Hexagonal 44.95591 2,8,9,2 [Ar] 3d1 4s2 3 1541C 2830C 1.36 1.44 .75 (+3) 2.09 15.0 cm/mol 6.5614 V 12.80 V 24.76 V 3 3.0 g/cm 0.6 J/gK 314.20 kJ/mol 14.10 kJ/mol 0.0177 10^6/cm ohm 0.158 W/cmK 80 10 MPa 10.0 10^-6 K^-1 3.3091   5.2735 SKAN-di-em Latin: Scandia, Scandinavia. Fairly soft, silvery-white metal. Eighth most abundant 'rare earth' found in the earth's crust (5.0 ppm). Lars Nilson 1879 Sweden Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium) and wiikite. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining. Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandum oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight.
Titanium Ti 22 Transition Metal Hexagonal 47.88 2,8,10,2 [Ar] 3d2 4s2 2,3,4 1668C 10C 3287C 1.54 1.32 .61 (+4) 2.00 10.64 cm/mol 6.8282 V 13.58 V 27.491 V (4),3,2 4.50 g/cm 0.52 J/gK 421.00 kJ/mol 15.450 kJ/mol 0.0234 10^6/cm ohm 0.219 W/cmK 110 10 MPa 8.6 10^-6 K^-1 29512   4.6845 tie-TAY-ni-em Greek: titanos (Titans). Shiny, dark-gray metal. Ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust (5700 ppm). It can be highly polished, and is relatively immune to tarnishing. William Gregor 1791 England Usually occurs in the minerals ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2). Also in Titaniferous magnetite, titanite (CaTiSiO5), and iron ores. Pure metal produced by heating TiO2 with C and Cl2 to produce TiCl4 then heated with Mg gas in Ar atmosphere. Since it is strong and resists acids it is used in many alloys. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a white pigment that covers surfaces very well, is used in paint, rubber, paper and many others.
Vanadium V 23 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 50.9415 2,8,11,2 [Ar] 3d3 4s2 2,3,4,5 1890C 10C 3407C 1.63 1.22 .54 (+5) 1.92 8.78 cm/mol 6.7463 V 14.65 V 29.31 V (5),4,3,2 5.8 g/cm 0.49 J/gK 0.452 kJ/mol 20.90 kJ/mol 0.0489 10^6/cm ohm 0.307 W/cmK 129 10 MPa 8.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.0232     veh-NAY-di-em From Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis. Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Resistant to corrosion by moisture, air and most acids and alkalis at room temperature. Nils Sefstrm 1830 Sweden Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere. It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.
Chromium Cr 24 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 51.9961 2,8,13,1 [Ar] 3d5 4s1 2,3,6 1857C 2672C 1.66 1.18 .62 (+3) 1.85 7.23 cm/mol 6.7666 V 16.50 V 30.96 V 6,(3),2 7.19 g/cm 0.45 J/gK 344.30 kJ/mol 16.90 kJ/mol 0.0774 10^6/cm ohm 0.937 W/cmK 259 10 MPa 4.9 10^-6 K^-1 2.8847     KROH-mi-em Greek: chrma (color). Very hard, crystalline, steel-gray metal. The pure metal has a blue-white color. It is hard, brittle and corrsion-resistant at normal temperatures. Louis Vauquelin 1797 France Chromite [Fe,Mg(CrO4)] is its most important mineral. Produced commercially by heating its ore in the presence of silicon or aluminium. Used to make stainless steel. It gives the color to rubies and emeralds. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in various percentages yield an incredible variety of the most important metals in modern technology.
Manganese Mn 25 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 54.93805 2,8,13,2 [Ar] 3d5 4s2 1,2,3,4,6,7 1244C 2061C 1.55 1.17 .67 (+2) 1.79 7.39 cm/mol 7.4340 V 15.64 V 33.667 V 7,6,4,(2),3 7.43 g/cm 0.48 J/gK 226.0 kJ/mol 12.050 kJ/mol 0.00695 10^6/cm ohm 0.0782 W/cmK 198 10 MPa 21.7 10^-6 K^-1 8.9142     MAN-ge-nees Latin: magnes (magnet); Italian: manganese. Hard, brittle, gray-white metal with a pinkish tinge. Rusts like iron in moist air. Johann Gahn 1774 Sweden Most abundant ores are pyrolusite (MnO2), psilomelane [(Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10] and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Pure metal produced by mixing MnO2 with powered Al and ignited in a furnace. Used in steel, batteries and ceramics. The steel in railroad tracks can contain as much as 1.2% manganese. It is crucial to the effectiveness of vitamin B1.
Iron Fe 26 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 55.847 2,8,14,2 [Ar] 3d6 4s2 2,3,4,6 1535C 2861C 1.83 1.17 .55 (+3) 1.72 7.1 cm/mol 7.9024 V 16.18 V 30.651 V 2,(3) 7.86 g/cm 0.44 J/gK 349.60 kJ/mol 13.80 kJ/mol 0.0993 10^6/cm ohm 0.802 W/cmK 211 10 MPa 11.8 10^-6 K^-1 2.8665     EYE-ern Anglo-Saxon: iron; symbol from Latin: ferrum (iron). Malleable, ductile, silvery-white metal. Fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust (56,300 ppm). Ninth most abundant element in the universe. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Obtained from iron ores. Pure metal produced in blast furnaces by layering limestone, coke and iron ore and forcing hot gasses into the bottom. This heats the coke red hot and the iron is reduced from its oxides and liquified where it flows to the bottom Used in steel and other alloys. Essential for humans. It is the chief constituent of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in blood vessels. Its oxides are used in magnetic tapes and disks.
Cobalt Co 27 Transition Metal Hexagonal 58.9332 2,8,15,2 [Ar] 3d7 4s2 2,3 1495C 2927C 1.88 1.16 .65 (+2) 1.67 6.7 cm/mol 7.8810 V 17.06 V 33.50 V (2),3 8.90 g/cm 0.42 J/gK 376.50 kJ/mol 16.190 kJ/mol 0.172 10^6/cm ohm 1.00 W/cmK 208 10 MPa 13 10^-6 K^-1 2.507   4.070 KO-bolt German: kobold (goblin). Hard, ductile, lustrous bluish-gray metal. Exists in the earth's curst in cocentrations of about 25 ppm. It has remarkable magnetic properties. George Brandt 1739 Sweden Occurs in compounds with arsenic, oxygen and sulfur as in cobaltine (CoAsS) and linneite (Co3S4). Pure cobalt is obtained as a byproduct of refining nickel, copper and iron. Used in many hard alloys; for magnets, ceramics and special glasses. Remains hard up to 982C. Radioactive cobalt-60 is used in cancer therapy.
Nickel Ni 28 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 58.6934 2,8,16,2 [Ar] 3d8 4s2 0,1,2,3 1453C 2913C 1.91 1.15 .69 (+2) 1.62 6.59 cm/mol 7.6398 V 18.168 V 35.17 V (2),3 8.90 g/cm 0.44 J/gK 370.40 kJ/mol 17.470 kJ/mol 0.143 10^6/cm ohm 0.907 W/cmK 208 10 MPa 13.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.5239     NIK-l German: kupfernickel (false copper). Hard, malleable, silvery-white metal. Found in the earth's crust in portions averaging 70 ppm. It can be polished to a lustrous finish. Virtually no corrosion under normal conditions. Axel Cronstedt 1751 Sweden Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] ore. The metal is produced by heating the ore in a blast furnace which replaces the sulfur with oxygen. The oxides are then treated with an acid that reacts with the iron not the nickel. Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.
Copper Cu 29 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 63.546 2,8,18,1 [Ar] 3d10 4s1 1,2 1083C 2567C 1.9 1.17 .73 (+2) 1.57 7.1 cm/mol 7.7264 V 20.292 V 36.83 V (2),1 8.96 g/cm 0.38 J/gK 300.30 kJ/mol 13.050 kJ/mol 0.596 10^6/cm ohm 4.01 W/cmK 124 10 MPa 16.5 10^-6 K^-1 3.6148     KOP-er Symbol from Latin: cuprum (island of Cyprus famed for its copper mines). Malleable, ductile, reddish-brown metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Pure copper occurs rarely in nature. Usually found in sulfides as in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), coveline (CuS), chalcosine (Cu2S) or oxides like cuprite (Cu2O). Most often used as an electrical conductor. Also used in the manufacture of water pipes. Its alloys are used in jewelry and for coins.
Zinc Zn 30 Metal Hexagonal 65.39 2,8,18,2 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 2 419.58C 907C 1.65 1.25 .74 (+2) 1.53 9.2 cm/mol 9.3941 V 17.964 V 39.722 V 2 7.14 g/cm 0.39 J/gK 115.30 kJ/mol 7.322 kJ/mol 0.166 10^6/cm ohm 1.16 W/cmK 95 10 MPa 30.2 10^-6 K^-1 2.6650   4.9470 ZINK German: zink (German for tin). Bluish-silver, ductile metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Germany Found in the minerals zinc blende (sphalerite) (ZnS), calamine, franklinite, smithsonite (ZnCO3), willemite, and zincite (ZnO). Used to coat other metal (galvanizing) to protect them from rusting. Also used in alloys such as brass, bronze, nickel. Also in solder, cosmetics and pigments.
Gallium Ga 31 Metal Orthorhombic 69.723 2,8,18,3 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 2,3 29.78C 2204C 1.81 1.26 .62 (+3) 1.81 11.8 cm/mol 5.9993 V 20.51 V 30.71 V 3 5.907 g/cm 0.37 J/gK 258.70 kJ/mol 5.590 kJ/mol 0.0678 10^6/cm ohm 0.406 W/cmK 11 10 MPa 19.7 10^-6 K^-1 4.523 7.661 4.524 GAL-i-em Latin: Gallia (France). Soft, blue-white metal. Paul mile Lecoq de Boisbaudran 1875 France Found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal. Used in semiconductor production. It us used in making LEDs (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes.
Germanium Ge 32 Metal Cubic: Face centered 72.61 2,8,18,4 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 2,4 937.4C 2830C 2.01 1.22 .53 (+4) 1.52 13.6 cm/mol 7.900 V 15.934 V 34.22 V (4),2 5.323 g/cm 0.32 J/gK 330.90 kJ/mol 36.940 kJ/mol 1.45e-8 10^6/cm ohm 0.599 W/cmK 115 10 MPa 5.7 10^-6 K^-1 5.677     jer-MAY-ni-em Latin: Germania (Germany). Grayish-white metal. Clemens Winkler 1886 Germany Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.
Arsenic As 33 Non-Metal Rhombohedral 74.92159 2,8,18,5 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3 -3,0,3,5 817C @ 28 atmos. Sublimes at 613C 2.18 1.20 .58 (+3) 1.33 13.1 cm/mol 9.8152 V 18.633 V 28.351 V (3),5 5.72 g/cm 0.33 J/gK 34.760 kJ/mol -- 0.0345 10^6/cm ohm 0.500 W/cmK 39 10 MPa 15.4 10^-6 K^-1 4.1319   a=54 8' AR-s'n-ik Greek: arsenikon; Latin: arsenicum, (both names for yellow pigment). Steel-gray, brittle semi-metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found in mispickel (arsenopyrite) Many of its compounds are deadly poison and used as weed killer and rat poison. Conducts electricity. Used in semiconductors. Some compounds, called arsenides, are used in the manufacture of paints, wallpapers, and ceramics.
Selenium Se 34 Non-Metal Hexagonal 78.96 2,8,18,6 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4 -2,4,6 217C 684.9C 2.55 1.16 .50 (+4) 1.22 16.45 cm/mol 9.7524 V 21.19 V 30.82 V -2,(4),6 4.79 g/cm 0.32 J/gK 37.70 kJ/mol 6.694 kJ/mol 1.0e-12 10^6/cm ohm 0.0204 W/cmK 20 10 MPa 45.0 10^-6 K^-1 4.3658   4.9592 si-LEE-ni-em Greek: seln (moon). Soft metalloid similar to sulfur. Ranges from gray metallic to red glassy appearance. Jns Berzelius 1818 Sweden Obtained from lead, copper and nickel refining. Conducts electricity when struck by light. Light causes it to conduct electricity more easily. It is used in photoelectric cells, TV cameras, xerography machines and as a semiconductor in solar batteries and rectifiers. Also colors glass red.
Bromine Br 35 Halogen Orthorhombic 79.904 2,8,18,7 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5 1,3,5,7 -7.2C 58.78C 2.96 1.14 1.96 (-1) 1.12 25.6 cm/mol 11.8138 V 21.8 V 36.0 V (1),5 3.119 g/cm 0.473 J/gK 15.438 kJ/mol 5.286 kJ/mol -- 0.00122 W/cmK -- -- --     BRO-meen Greek: brmos (stench). Redish-brown liquid. Antoine J. Balard 1826 France Occurs in compounds in sea water. It was once used in large quantities to make a compound that removed lead compound build up in engines burning leaded gasoline. Now it is primarily used in dyes, disinfectants, and photographic chemicals.
Krypton Kr 36 Noble Gas Cubic: Face centered 83.8 2,8,18,8 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6 0 -156.6C -152.3C 0 1.12 -- 1.03 38.9 cm/mol 13.9996 V 24.359 V 36.95 V 0 0.003708 g/cm 0.248 J/gK 9.029 kJ/mol 1.638 kJ/mol -- 0.0000949 W/cmK -- 425 10^-6 K^-1 --     KRIP-ton Greek: kryptos (hidden). Colorless, odorless, tasteless rare noble gas. Sir William Ramsey, M.W. Travers 1898 Great Britain Forms 1 millionth of the atmosphere. Obtained from production of liquid air. Used in lighting products. Some is used as inert filler-gas in incandescent bulbs. Some is mixed with argon in fluorescent lamps. The most important use is in flashing stroboscopic lamps that outline airport runways.
Rubidium Rb 37 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered 85.4678 2,8,18,8,1 [Kr] 5s1 1,2,3,4 38.89C 686C 0.82 2.16 1.61 (+1) 2.98 55.9 cm/mol 4.1771 V 27.28 V 40.0 V 1 1.53 g/cm 0.363 J/gK 72.216 kJ/mol 2.192 kJ/mol 0.0779 10^6/cm ohm 0.582 W/cmK 2.0 10 MPa 91 10^-6 K^-1 5.70     roo-BID-i-em Latin: rubidus (deep red); the color its salts impart to flames. Soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. R. Bunsen, G. Kirchoff 1861 Germany Occurs abundantly, but so widespread that production is limited. Usually obtained from lithium production. Used as a catalyst, photocells, and vacuum and cathode-ray tubes.
Strontium Sr 38 Alkali Earth Metal Cubic: Face centered 87.62 2,8,18,8,2 [Kr] 5s2 2 769C 1384C 0.95 1.91 1.26 (+2) 2.45 33.7 cm/mol 5.6948 V 11.03 V 43.60 V 2 2.6 g/cm 0.30 J/gK 144.0 kJ/mol 8.30 kJ/mol 0.0762 10^6/cm ohm 0.353 W/cmK 15 10 MPa 22.5 10^-6 K^-1 6.0851     STRON-she-em From the Scottish town, Strontian. Soft, malleable, silvery-yellow metal. A. Crawford 1790 Scotland Found in minerals celestite and strontianite. Used in flares and fireworks for crimson color. Strontium-90 is a long lived highly radioactive fallout product of atomic-bomb explosions.
Yttrium Y 39 Transition Metal Hexagonal 88.90585 2,8,18,9,2 [Kr] 4d1 5s2 3 1522C 8C 3338C 1.22 1.62 1.02 (+3) 2.27 19.8 cm/mol 6.217 V 12.24 V 20.52 V 3 4.47 g/cm 0.30 J/gK 363.0 kJ/mol 11.40 kJ/mol 0.0166 10^6/cm ohm 0.172 W/cmK 64.4 10 MPa 11.3 10^-6 K^-1 3.6475   5.7308 IT-ri-em From the Swedish village, Ytterby, where one of its minerals was first found. Silvery, ductile, fairly reactive metal. Johann Gadolin 1789 Finland Found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime, and yttria. Combined with europium to make red phosphors for color TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar.
Zirconium Zr 40 Transition Metal Hexagonal 91.224 2,8,18,10,2 [Kr] 4d2 5s2 2,3,4 1852C 2C 4377C 1.33 1.45 .84 (+4) 2.16 14.1 cm/mol 6.6339 V 13.13 V 22.99 V 4 6.4 g/cm 0.27 J/gK 58.20 kJ/mol 16.90 kJ/mol 0.0236 10^6/cm ohm 0.227 W/cmK 94 10 MPa 5.7 10^-6 K^-1 3.2313   5.1479 zer-KO-ni-em From the mineral, zircon. Gray-white, lustrous, corrosion-resistant metal. Martin Klaproth 1789 Germany Found in many minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite. Used in alloys such as zircaloy which is used in nuclear applications since it does not readily absorb neutrons. Also baddeleyite is used in lab crucibles. Used in high-performance pumps and valves. Clear zircon (ZrSiO4) is a popular gemstone.
Niobium Nb 41 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 92.90638 2,8,18,12,1 [Kr] 4d4 5s1 2,3,5 2468C 10C 4742C 1.6 1.34 .64 (+5) 2.08 10.87 cm/mol 6.7589 V 14.32 V 25.04 V (5),3 8.57 g/cm 0.26 J/gK 682.0 kJ/mol 26.40 kJ/mol 0.0693 10^6/cm ohm 0.537 W/cmK 104 10 MPa 7.3 10^-6 K^-1 3.3067     ni-OH-bee-em From Niobe; daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus. Shiny white, soft, ductile metal. Charles Hatchet 1801 England Occurs in a mineral columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles. Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium.
Molybdenum Mo 42 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 95.94 2,8,18,13,1 [Kr] 4d5 5s1 2,3,6 2617C 4612C 2.16 1.30 .59 (+6) 2.01 9.4 cm/mol 7.0924 V 16.461 V 27.16 V (6),5,4,3,2 10.2 g/cm 0.25 J/gK 598.0 kJ/mol 32.0 kJ/mol 0.187 10^6/cm ohm 1.38 W/cmK 322 10 MPa 4.8 10^-6 K^-1 3.1469     meh-LIB-deh-nem Greek: molybdos (lead). Hard, silvery-white metal. Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1778 Sweden Found in the minerals molybdenite (MoS2) and wulfenite (MoO4Pb). Its alloys are used in aircraft, missiles, and protective coatings in boiler plate.
Technetium Tc 43 Transition Metal Hexagonal -97.9072 2,8,18,13,2 [Kr] 4d5 5s2 0,2,4,5,6,7 2172C 4877C 1.9 1.27 -- 1.95 8.5 cm/mol 7.28 V 15.26 V 29.54 V (7),6,4 11.5 g/cm 0.21 J/gK 660.0 kJ/mol 24.0 kJ/mol 0.067 10^6/cm ohm 0.506 W/cmK 380 10 MPa 8 10^-6 K^-1 2.735   4.388 tek-NEE-shi-em Greek: techntos (artificial). Silvery-gray metal. First synthetically produced element. Carlo Perrier, millo Segr 1937 Italy Made first by bombarding molybdenum with deuterons (heavy hydrogen) in a cyclotron. Added to iron in quantities as low as 55 part-per-million transforms the iron into a corrosion-resistant alloy.
Ruthenium Ru 44 Transition Metal Hexagonal 101.07 2,8,18,15,1 [Kr] 4d7 5s1 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 2334C 4150C 2.2 1.25 .62 (+4) 1.89 8.3 cm/mol 7.3605 V 16.76 V 28.47 V 2,(3,4),6,8 12.2 g/cm 0.238 J/gK 595.0 kJ/mol 24.0 kJ/mol 0.137 10^6/cm ohm 1.17 W/cmK 430 10 MPa 6.4 10^-6 K^-1 2.7059   4.2818 roo-THE-ni-em Latin: Ruthenia (Russia). Rare, extremely brittle, silver-gray metal. Karl Klaus 1844 Russia Found in pentlandite and pyroxinite. Used to harden platinum and palladium. Aircraft magnetos use platinum alloy with 10% ruthenium.
Rhodium Rh 45 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 102.9055 2,8,18,16,1 [Kr] 4d8 5s1 2,3,4,5,6 1966C 3C 3695C 2.28 1.25 .67 (+3) 1.83 8.3 cm/mol 7.4589 V 18.08 V 31.06 V 2,(3),4 12.4 g/cm 0.242 J/gK 493.0 kJ/mol 21.50 kJ/mol 0.211 10^6/cm ohm 1.50 W/cmK 330 10 MPa 8.2 10^-6 K^-1 3.8045     RO-di-em Greek: rhodon (rose). Its salts give a rosy solution. Hard, silvery-white metal William Wollaston 1803 England Obtained as a by-product of nickel production. Used as a coating to prevent wear on high quality science equipment and with platinum to make thermocouples.
Palladium Pd 46 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 106.42 2,8,18,18 [Kr] 4d10 2,3,4 1552C 2940C 2.2 1.28 .64 (+2) 1.79 8.9 cm/mol 8.3369 V 19.63 V 32.93 V (2),4 12.02 g/cm 0.24 J/gK 357.0 kJ/mol 17.60 kJ/mol 0.0950 10^6/cm ohm 0.718 W/cmK 127 10 MPa 11.8 10^-6 K^-1 3.8908     peh-LAY-di-em Named after the asteroid, Pallas, discovered in 1803. Soft, malleable, ductile, silvery-white metal. William Wollaston 1803 England Obtained with platinum, nickel, copper and mercury ores. Used as a substitue for silver in dental items and jewelry. The pure metal is used as the delicate mainsprings in analog wristwatches. Also used in surgical instruments and as catalyst .
Silver Ag 47 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 107.8682 2,8,18,18,1 [Kr] 4d10 5s1 1,2 961.93C 2162C 1.93 1.34 1.15 (+1) 1.75 10.3 cm/mol 7.5762 V 21.49 V 34.83 V 1 10.5 g/cm 0.235 J/gK 250.580 kJ/mol 11.30 kJ/mol 0.630 10^6/cm ohm 4.29 W/cmK 80 10 MPa 18.9 10^-6 K^-1 4.0863     SIL-ver Anglo-Saxon: siolful, (silver); symbol from Latin: argentium. Silvery-ductile, and malleable metal Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found in ores called argentite (AgS), light ruby silver (Ag3AsS3), dark ruby silver(Ag3SbS3) and brittle silver. Used in alloys for jewelry and in other compounds for photography. It is also a good conductor, but expensive.
Cadmium Cd 48 Metal Hexagonal 112.411 2,8,18,18,2 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 2 320.9C 765C 1.69 1.48 .95 (+2) 1.71 13.1 cm/mol 8.9937 V 16.908 V 37.48 V 2 8.65 g/cm 0.23 J/gK 99.570 kJ/mol 6.192 kJ/mol 0.138 10^6/cm ohm 0.968 W/cmK 62 10 MPa 30.8 10^-6 K^-1 2.9789   5.6169 KAD-me-em Greek: kadmeia (ancient name for calamine (zinc oxide)). Soft, malleable, blue-white metal. Fredrich Stromeyer 1817 Germany Obtained as a by product of zinc refining. Used in nickel-cadmium batteries. Also in electroplating steel and in the manufacture of berings. Its compounds are found in paint pigments and a wide variety of intense colors. Boiling cadmium gives off a weird, yellow-colored vapor that is poisonous.
Indium In 49 Metal Tetragonal 114.818 2,8,18,18,3 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 1,2,3 156.61C 2080C 1.78 1.44 .80 (+3) 2.00 15.7 cm/mol 5.7864 V 18.869 V 28.03 V 3 7.31 g/cm 0.23 J/gK 231.50 kJ/mol 3.263 kJ/mol 0.116 10^6/cm ohm 0.816 W/cmK 14 10 MPa 32.1 10^-6 K^-1 4.5981   4.9469 IN-di-em Latin: indicum (color indigo), the color it shows in a spectroscope. Rare, very soft, silver-white metal Ferdinand Reich, T. Richter 1863 Germany Found in certain zinc ores. Used to coat high speed bearings and as an alloy that lowers the melting point of other metals. Relativly small amounts are used in dental items and in electronic semiconductors.
Tin Sn 50 Metal Tetragonal 118.71 2,8,18,18,4 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2 2,4 231.97C 2602C 1.96 1.41 .71 (+4) 1.72 16.3 cm/mol 7.3438 V 14.632 V 30.502 V (4),2 7.30 g/cm 0.227 J/gK 295.80 kJ/mol 7.029 kJ/mol 0.0917 10^6/cm ohm 0.666 W/cmK 50 10 MPa 22.0 10^-6 K^-1 5.8317     TIN Named after Etruscan god, Tinia; symbol from Latin: stannum (tin). Silvery-white, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Principally found in the ore cassiterite(SnO2) and stannine (Cu2FeSnS4). Used as a coating for steel cans since it is nontoxic and noncorrosive. Also in solder (33%Sn:67%Pb), bronze (20%Sn:80%Cu), and pewter. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), a compound of tin and fluorine is used in some toothpaste.
Antimony Sb 51 Metal Rhombohedral 121.757 2,8,18,18,5 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3 0,-3,3,5 630.74C 1587C 2.05 1.40 .76 (+3) 1.53 18.23 cm/mol 8.64 V 16.53 V 25.30 V (3),5 6.684 g/cm 0.21 J/gK 77.140 kJ/mol 19.870 kJ/mol 0.0288 10^6/cm ohm 0.243 W/cmK 67 10 MPa 11.0 10^-6 K^-1 4.5069   a=57 6'27" AN-teh-MOH-ni Greek: anti and monos (not alone); symbol from mineral stibnite. Hard, brittle, silvery-white semimetal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found in stibnite (Sb2S3) and in valentinite (Sb2O3). It is alloyed with other metals to increase their hardness. Also in the manufacture of a few special types of semiconductor devices. Also in plastics and chemicals. A few kinds of over-the-counter cold and flu remedies use antimony compounds.
Tellurium Te 52 Non-Metal Hexagonal 127.6 2,8,18,18,6 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 2,4,6 449.5C 989.9C 2.1 1.36 .97 (+4) 1.42 20.5 cm/mol 9.0096 V 18.60 V 27.96 V -2,(4),6 6.24 g/cm 0.20 J/gK 52.550 kJ/mol 17.490 kJ/mol 2.0e-6 10^6/cm ohm 0.0235 W/cmK 40 10 MPa 18.8 10^-6 K^-1 4.4568   5.9270 te-LOOR-i-em Latin: tellus (earth). Silvery-white, brittle simi-metal. Franz Mller von Reichenstein 1782 Romania Obtained as a by-product of copper and lead refining. Used to improve the machining quality of copper and stainless steel products and to color glass and ceramics. Also in thermoelectric devices. Some is used in the rubber industry and it is a basic ingredient in manufacturing blasting caps.
Iodine I 53 Halogen Orthorhombic 126.90447 2,8,18,18,7 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5 1,3,5,7 113.5C 184.35C @ 35 atmos. 2.66 1.33 2.20 (-1) 1.32 25.74 cm/mol 10.4513 V 19.131 V 33.0 V (1),5,7 4.93 g/cm 0.214 J/gK 20.752 kJ/mol 7.824 kJ/mol 8.0e-16 10^6/cm ohm 0.00449 W/cmK -- 87 10^-6 K^-1 4.79 7.25 9.78 EYE-eh-dine Greek: ieides (violet colored). Shiny, black, non-metalic solid; as a gas it is violet and intensely irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. Bernard Courtois 1811 France Occurs on land and in the sea in sodium and potassium compounds. Required in small amounts by humans. Once used as an antiseptic, but no longer due to its poisonous nature.
Xenon Xe 54 Noble Gas Cubic: Face centered 131.29 2,8,18,18,8 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6 0 -111.9C -107.1C 0 1.31 -- 1.24 37.3 cm/mol 12.1299 V 21.21 V 32.10 V 0 0.00588 g/cm 0.158 J/gK 12.636 kJ/mol 2.297 kJ/mol -- 0.0000569 W/cmK -- 253 10^-6 K^-1 --     ZEE-non Greek: xenos (strange). Heavy, colorless, odorless, noble gas. Sir William Ramsay; M. W. Travers 1898 England Obtain from the small quantities in liquid air. Used for filling flash lamps and other powerful lamps. Electrical excitation of xenon produces a burst of brilliant whtie light. Also used in bubble chambers and modern nuclear power reactors.
Cesium Cs 55 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered 132.90543 2,8,18,18,8,1 [Xe] 6s1 1 28.4C 669.3C 0.79 2.35 1.74 (+1) 3.34 71.07 cm/mol 3.8939 V 25.10 V -- 1 1.873 g/cm 0.24 J/gK 67.740 kJ/mol 2.092 kJ/mol 0.0489 10^6/cm ohm 0.359 W/cmK 1.8 10 MPa 100 10^-6 K^-1 6.0797     SEE-zi-em Latin: coesius (sky blue); for the blue lines of its spectrum. Very soft, light gray, ductile metal. Gustov Kirchoff, Robert Bunsen 1860 Germany Found in pollucite [(Cs4Al4Si9O26).H2O] and as trace in lepidolite. Used as a 'getter' to remove air traces in vacuum and cathode-ray tubes. Also used in producing photoelectric devices and atomic clocks. Since it ionizes readily, it is used as an ion rocket motor propellant.
Barium Ba 56 Alkali Earth Metal Cubic: Body centered 137.327 2,8,18,18,8,2 [Xe] 6s2 2 725C 1897C 0.89 1.98 1.42 (+2) 2.78 39.24 cm/mol 5.2117 V 10.004 V -- 2 3.51 g/cm 0.204 J/gK 142.0 kJ/mol 7.750 kJ/mol 0.030 10^6/cm ohm 0.184 W/cmK 13 10 MPa 20.6 10^-6 K^-1 5.013     BAR-i-em Greek: barys (heavy or dense). Soft, slightly malleable, silvery-white metal. Sir Humphrey Davy 1808 England Found in barytine (BaSO4) and witherite (BaCO3), never found in pure form due to its reactivity. Must be stored under kerosene to remain pure. Barite, or barium sulfate (BaSO4), when ground is used as a filter for rubber, plastics, and resins. It is insoluable in water and so is used in X-rays of the digestive system. Barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2, burns brilliant green and is used in fireworks.
Lanthanum La 57 Transition Metal Hexagonal 138.9055 2,8,18,18,9,2 [Xe] 5d1 6s2 3 918C 3464C 1.1 1.69 1.16 (+3) 2.74 20.73 cm/mol 5.5770 V 11.059 V 19.174 V 3 6.7 g/cm 0.19 J/gK 414.0 kJ/mol 6.20 kJ/mol 0.0126 10^6/cm ohm 0.135 W/cmK 50 10 MPa 5.2 10^-6 K^-1 3.770   12.159 LAN-the-nem Greek: lanthanein (to be hidden). Soft, silvery-white, malleable, ductile metal. Carl Mosander 1839 Sweden Found with rare earths in monazite and bastnasite. Monazite sand typicall contains 25% lanthanum. It is used in the electodes of high-intensity, carbon-arc lights. Also used in the production of high-grade europium metal. Because it gives glass refractive properties, it is used in expensive camera lenses.
Cerium Ce 58 Rare Earth Cubic: Face centered 140.115 2,8,18,20,8,2 [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2 3,4 798C 3C 3433C 1.12 1.65 1.14 (+3) 2.70 20.67 cm/mol 5.5387 V 10.851 V 20.20 V (3),4 6.78 g/cm 0.19 J/gK 414.0 kJ/mol 5.460 kJ/mol 0.0115 10^6/cm ohm 0.114 W/cmK 30 10 MPa 5.2 10^-6 K^-1 5.1603     SER-i-em Named after the asteroid, Ceres, discovered two years before the element. Malleable, ductile, iron-gray metal. W. von Hisinger, J. Berzelius, M. Klaproth 1803 Sweden/Germany Most abundant rare earth metal. Found in many minerals like monazite sand [Ce(PO4)]. Its oxides are used in the optics and glass-making industries. Its salts are used in the photography and textile industry. Used in high-intensity carbon lamps and as alloying agents in special metals.
Praseodymium Pr 59 Rare Earth Hexagonal 140.90765 2,8,18,21,8,2 [Xe] 4f3 6s2 3 931C 3520C 1.13 1.65 1.13 (+3) 2.67 20.8 cm/mol 5.464 V 10.551 V 21.62 V (3,4) 6.77 g/cm 0.19 J/gK 296.80 kJ/mol 6.890 kJ/mol 0.0148 10^6/cm ohm 0.125 W/cmK 50 10 MPa 5.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.6726   11.8358 pra-si-eh-DIM-i-em Greek: prasios and didymos (green twin); from its green salts. Silvery white, moderately soft, malleable, ductile metal. C.F. Aver von Welsbach 1885 Austria Obtained from same salts as neodymium. Used with neodymium to make lenses for glass maker's goggles since it filters out the yellow light present in glass blowing. Alloyed with magnesium creates a high-strength metal used in aircraft engines. Makes up 5% of Mich metal.
Neodymium Nd 60 Rare Earth Hexagonal 144.24 2,8,18,22,8,2 [Xe] 4f4 6s2 3 1021C 3074C 1.14 1.64 -- 2.64 20.6 cm/mol 5.5250 V 10.727 V 22.076 V 3 7.0 g/cm 0.19 J/gK 273.0 kJ/mol 7.140 kJ/mol 0.0157 10^6/cm ohm 0.165 W/cmK 38 10 MPa 6.9 10^-6 K^-1 3.6580     nee-eh-DIM-i-em Greek: neos and didymos (new twin). Silvery-white, rare-earth metal that oxidizes easily in air. C.F. Aver von Welsbach 1925 Austria Made from electrolysis of its halide salts, which are made from monazite sand. Used in making artificial ruby for lasers. Also in ceramics and for a special lens with praseodymium. Also to produce bright purple glass and special glass that filters infrared radiation. Makes up 18% of Mich metal, which is used in making steel.
Promethium Pm 61 Rare Earth Hexagonal -144.9127 2,8,18,23,8,2 [Xe] 4f5 6s2 3 1042 C 3000 C (estimated) 1.13 1.63 1.09 (+3) 2.62 22.39 cm/mol 5.55 V 10.903 V 22.283 V 3 6.475 g/cm 0.18 J/gK -- -- -- 0.179 W/cmK 42 10 MPa -- --     pro-MEE-thi-em Named for the Greek god, Prometheus. Rare earth metal of synthetic origin on the earth, naturally made in stars. J.A. Marinsky, L.E. Glendenin, C.D. Coryell 1945 United States Does not occur naturally. Found among fission products of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. It has been used as a source of radioactivity for thickness-measuring gages.
Samarium Sm 62 Rare Earth Rhombohedral 150.36 2,8,18,24,8,2 [Xe] 4f6 6s2 2,3 1074C 1794C 1.17 1.62 1.08 (+3) 2.59 19.95 cm/mol 5.6437 V 11.069 V 23.423 V (3),2 7.54 g/cm 0.20 J/gK 166.40 kJ/mol 8.630 kJ/mol 0.00956 10^6/cm ohm 0.133 W/cmK 45 10 MPa -- 8.996   a=23 13' seh-MER-i-em Named after the mineral samarskite. Silvery rare earth metal. Paul mile Lecoq de Boisbaudran 1879 France Found with other rare earths in monazite sand. The sand is often 50% rare earths by weight and 2.8% samarium. It is used in the electronics and ceramics industries. It is easily magnetized and very difficult to demagnetize. This suggests important future applications in solid-state and superconductor technologies.
Europium Eu 63 Rare Earth Cubic: Body centered 151.965 2,8,18,25,8,2 [Xe] 4f7 6s2 2,3 822C 1527C 1.2 1.85 1.07 (+3) 2.56 28.9 cm/mol 5.6704 V 11.245 V 24.926 V (3),2 5.259 g/cm 0.18 J/gK 143.50 kJ/mol 9.210 kJ/mol 0.0112 10^6/cm ohm 0.139 W/cmK 15 10 MPa 41 10^-6 K^-1 4.5822     yoo-RO-pi-em Named for the continent of Europe. Soft, silvery-white metal. Eugne Demaray 1901 France Obtained from monazite sand, which is a mixture of phosphates of calcium, thorium, cerium, and most other rare earths. Used with yttrium oxide to make red phosphors for color televisions.
Gadolinium Gd 64 Rare Earth Hexagonal 157.25 2,8,18,25,9,2 [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2 3 1313C 3273C 1.2 1.61 1.05 (+3) 2.54 19.9 cm/mol 6.1500 V 12.095 V 20.635 V 3 7.895 g/cm 0.23 J/gK 359.40 kJ/mol 10.050 kJ/mol 0.00736 10^6/cm ohm 0.106 W/cmK 55 10 MPa -2 10^-6 K^-1 3.6361   5.7828 GAD-eh-LIN-i-em Named after the mineral gadolinite. Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Jean de Marignac 1880 Switzerland Found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand. Used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components.
Terbium Tb 65 Rare Earth Hexagonal 158.92534 2,8,18,27,8,2 [Xe] 4f9 6s2 3,4 1356C 3230C 1.2 1.59 1.18 (+3) 2.51 19.2 cm/mol 5.8639 V 11.525 V 21.91 V (3),4 8.27 g/cm 0.18 J/gK 330.90 kJ/mol 10.80 kJ/mol 0.00889 10^6/cm ohm 0.111 W/cmK 57 10 MPa 9.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.6011   5.6938 TUR-bi-em Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden. Soft, ductile, silvery-gray, rare earth metal. Carl Mosander 1843 Sweden Found with other rare earths in monazite sand, which typically contain 0.03% terbium. Other sources are xenotime and euxenite, both of which are oxide mixtures that can contain up to 1% terbium. It is used in modest amounts in special lasers and solid-state devices.
Dysprosium Dy 66 Rare Earth Hexagonal 162.5 2,8,18,28,8,2 [Xe] 4f10 6s2 3 1412C 2567C 1.22 1.59 1.03 (+3) 2.49 19.0 cm/mol 5.9389 V 11.67 V 22.802 V 3 8.536 g/cm 0.17 J/gK 230.0 kJ/mol 11.060 kJ/mol 0.0108 10^6/cm ohm 0.107 W/cmK 63 10 MPa 9.6 10^-6 K^-1 3.5904   5.6477 dis-PRO-si-em Greek: dysprositos (hard to get at). Soft, lustrous, silvery metal. Paul mile Lecoq de Boisbaudran 1886 France Usually found with erbium, holmium and other rare earths in some minerals such as monazite sand, which is often 50% rare earth by weight. Its uses are limited to the experimental and esoteric.
Holmium Ho 67 Rare Earth Hexagonal 164.93032 2,8,18,29,8,2 [Xe] 4f11 6s2 3 1474C 2700C 1.23 1.58 -- 2.47 18.7 cm/mol 6.0216 V 11.805 V 22.843 V 3 8.80 g/cm 0.16 J/gK 241.0 kJ/mol 12.20 kJ/mol 0.0124 10^6/cm ohm 0.162 W/cmK 72 10 MPa 9.8 10^-6 K^-1 3.5774   5.6160 HOLE-mi-em From Holmia, the Latinized name for Stockholm, Sweden. Fairly soft, malleable, lustrous, silvery metal. J.L. Soret 1878 Switzerland Occurs in gadolinite. Most often from monazite which is often 50% rare earth and typically 0.05% holmium. It has very few practical applications; however, it has some unusual magnetic properties that offer some hope for future applications.
Erbium Er 68 Rare Earth Hexagonal 167.26 2,8,18,30,8,2 [Xe] 4f12 6s2 3 1529C 2868C 1.24 1.57 1.00 (+3) 2.45 18.4 cm/mol 6.1078 V 11.929 V 22.739 V 3 9.05 g/cm 0.17 J/gK 261.0 kJ/mol 19.90 kJ/mol 0.0117 10^6/cm ohm 0.143 W/cmK 73 10 MPa 9.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.5589   5.5876 UR-bi-em Named after the Swedish town, Ytterby. Soft, malleable, silvery metal. Carl Mosander 1843 Sweden Found with other heavier rare earths in xenotime and euxerite. Erbium oxide is used in ceramics to obtain a pink glaze. Also a few uses in the nuclear industry and as an alloying agent for other exotic metals. For example, it increases the malleability of vanadium.
Thulium Tm 69 Rare Earth Hexagonal 168.93421 2,8,18,31,8,2 [Xe] 4f13 6s2 3 1545C 1950C 1.25 1.56 1.09 (+3) 2.42 18.1 cm/mol 6.1843 V 12.054 V 26.367 V (3),2 9.33 g/cm 0.16 J/gK 191.0 kJ/mol 16.840 kJ/mol 0.0150 10^6/cm ohm 0.168 W/cmK 76 10 MPa 12 10^-6 K^-1 3.5346   5.5548 THOO-li-em From Thule ancient name of Scandinavia. Soft, malleable, ductile, silvery metal Per Theodor Cleve 1879 Sweden Found with other rare earths in the minerals gadolinite, euxenite, xenotime, and monazite. Monazite is often 50% rare earth by weight and 0.007% thulium. Radioactive thulium is used to power portable x-ray machines, eliminating the need for electrical equipment.
Ytterbium Yb 70 Rare Earth Cubic: Face centered 173.04 2,8,18,32,8,2 [Xe] 4f14 6s2 2,3 819C 1196C 1.1 1.74 .99 (+3) 2.40 24.79 cm/mol 6.2542 V 12.188 V 25.03 V (3),2 6.98 g/cm 0.15 J/gK 128.90 kJ/mol 7.660 kJ/mol 0.0351 10^6/cm ohm 0.349 W/cmK 18 10 MPa 25.1 10^-6 K^-1 5.4864     i-TUR-bi-em Named for the Swedish village of Ytterby. Silvery, lustrous, malleable, and ductile metal. Jean de Marignac 1878 Switzerland Found in minerals such as yttria, monazite, gadolinite, and xenotime. Monazite is often 50% rare earth by weight and typically 0.03% ytterbium. Used in metallurgical and chemical experiments.
Lutetium Lu 71 Rare Earth Hexagonal 174.967 2,8,18,32,9,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2 3 1663C 3402C 1.27 1.56 .98 (+3) 2.25 17.78 cm/mol 5.4259 V 13.888 V 20.957 V 3 9.85 g/cm 0.15 J/gK 355.90 kJ/mol 18.60 kJ/mol 0.0185 10^6/cm ohm 0.164 W/cmK 84 10 MPa 8.2 10^-6 K^-1 3.5032   5.5511 loo-TEE-shi-em Named for the ancient name of Paris, Lutecia. Silvery-white, hard, dense, rare earth metal. Georges Urbain 1907 France Found with ytterbium in gadolinite and xenotime. Usually obtained from monazite sand which is ofter 50% rare earth by weight and 0.003% lutetium. It has no practical applications.
Hafnium Hf 72 Transition Metal Hexagonal 178.49 2,8,18,32,10,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2 4 2227C 4602C 1.3 1.44 .83 (+4) 2.16 13.6 cm/mol 6.8251 V 14.925 V 23.32 V 4 13.2 g/cm 0.14 J/gK 575.0 kJ/mol 24.060 kJ/mol 0.0312 10^6/cm ohm 0.230 W/cmK 139 10 MPa 5.9 10^-6 K^-1 3.1947   5.0513 HAF-ni-em From Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen. Silvery, ductile metal. Dirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy 1923 Denmark Obtained from mineral zircon or baddeleyite. Used in reactor control rods because of its ability to absorb neutrons.
Tantalum Ta 73 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 180.9479 2,8,18,32,11,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2 3,5 2996C 5425C 100C 1.5 1.34 .64 (+5) 2.09 10.90 cm/mol 7.89 V -- -- 5 16.6 g/cm 0.14 J/gK 743.0 kJ/mol 31.60 kJ/mol 0.0761 10^6/cm ohm 0.575 W/cmK 183 10 MPa 6.3 10^-6 K^-1 3.298     TAN-te-lem From king Tantalus of Greek mythology, father of Niobe. Rare, gray, heavy, hard but ductile, metal with a high melting point. Anders Ekeberg 1802 Sweden Chiefly occurs in the mineral tantalite. Always found with niobium. Often used as an economical substitute for platinum. Tantalum pentoxide is used in capacitors and in camera lenses to increase refracting power. It and its alloys are corrosion and wear resistant so it is used to make surgical and dental tools.
Tungsten W 74 Transition Metal Cubic: Body centered 183.84 2,8,18,32,12,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2 2,3,4,5,6 3410C 20C 5660C 2.36 1.30 .60 (+6) 2.02 9.53 cm/mol 7.98 V -- -- (6),5,4,3,2 19.3 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 824.0 kJ/mol 35.40 kJ/mol 0.189 10^6/cm ohm 1.74 W/cmK 401 10 MPa 4.5 10^-6 K^-1 3.1653     TUNG-sten Swedish: tung sten (heavy stone): symbol from its German name wolfram. Hard, steel-gray to white metal. Highest melting point of all metals. Fausto and Juan Jos de Elhuyar 1783 Spain Occurs in the minerals scheelite (CaWO4) and wolframite [(Fe,Mn)WO4]. Made into filaments for vacuum tubes and electric lights. Also as contact points in cars. Combined with calcium or magnesium it makes phosphors. Tungsten carbide is extremely hard and is used for making cutting tools and abrasives.
Rhenium Re 75 Transition Metal Hexagonal 186.207 2,8,18,32,13,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2 -1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 3180C 5627C (estimated) 1.9 1.28 .53 (+7) 1.97 8.85 cm/mol 7.88 V -- -- (7),6,4,2,-1 21.0 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 715.0 kJ/mol 33.20 kJ/mol 0.0542 10^6/cm ohm 0.479 W/cmK 461 10 MPa 6.2 10^-6 K^-1 2.760   4.458 REE-ni-em Latin: Rhenus, the Rhine River. Rare and costly, dense, silvery-white metal. Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg 1925 Germany Found in small amounts in gadolinite and molybdenite. Has a very high melting point. Mixed with tungsten or platinum to make filaments for mass spectrographs. Its main value is as a trace alloying agent for hardening metal components that are subjected to continuous frictional forces.
Osmium Os 76 Transition Metal Hexagonal 190.23 2,8,18,32,14,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2 0,3,4,6,8 3054C 5027C 2.2 1.26 .63 (+4) 1.92 8.49 cm/mol 8.7 V -- -- 2,3,(4),6,8 22.40 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 746.0 kJ/mol 31.80 kJ/mol 0.109 10^6/cm ohm 0.876 W/cmK 550 10 MPa 5.1 10^-6 K^-1 2.7354   4.3193 OZ-mi-em Greek: osm (odor). Hard fine black powder or hard, lustrous, blue-white metal. Smithson Tenant 1804 England Obtained from the same ores as platinum. Used to tip gold pen points, instrument pivots, to make electric light filaments. Used for high temp. alloys and pressure bearings. Very hard and resists corrosion better than any other.
Iridium Ir 77 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 192.22 2,8,18,32,15,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2 3 2410C 4130C 2.2 1.27 .63 (+4) 1.87 8.54 cm/mol 9.1 V -- -- 2,3,(4),6 22.42 g/cm 0.130 J/gK 604.0 kJ/mol 26.10 kJ/mol 0.197 10^6/cm ohm 1.47 W/cmK 533 10 MPa 6.4 10^-6 K^-1 3.8390     i-RID-i-em Latin: iris (rainbow). Heavy, brittle, white metal. S.Tenant, A.F.Fourcory, L.N.Vauquelin, H.V.Collet-Descoltils 1804 England/France Found in gravel deposits with platinum. Used with osmium to tip gold pen points, to make crucible and special containers. Also to make alloys used for standard weights and measures, and heat-resistant alloys. Also as hardening agent for platinum.
Platinum Pt 78 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 195.08 2,8,18,32,17,1 [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1 2,3,4 1772C 3827C 2.28 1.30 .63 (+4) 1.83 9.10 cm/mol 9.0 V 18.563 V -- 2,(4) 21.45 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 510.0 kJ/mol 19.60 kJ/mol 0.0966 10^6/cm ohm 0.716 W/cmK 175 10 MPa 8.8 10^-6 K^-1 3.9240     PLAT-n-em Spanish: platina (little silver). Rare, very heavy, soft, silvery-white metal. Julius Scaliger 1735 Italy Produced from deposits of native, or elemental, platinum. Used in jewelry, to make crucible and special containers and as a catalyst. Used with cobalt to produce very strong magnets. Also to make standard weights and measures. Resists corrosion and acid attacks except aqua regia.
Gold Au 79 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered 196.96654 2,8,18,32,18,1 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 1,3 1064.43C 2808C 2.54 1.34 .85 (+3) 1.79 10.2 cm/mol 9.2257 V 20.521 V -- (3),1 19.32 g/cm 0.128 J/gK 334.40 kJ/mol 12.550 kJ/mol 0.452 10^6/cm ohm 3.17 W/cmK 78.3 10 MPa 14.2 10^-6 K^-1 4.0786     GOLD Anglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn). Soft, malleable, bright yellow metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found in veins in the crust, with cooper ore and native . Very malleable. Used in electronics, jewelry and coins. It is a good reflector of infrared radiation, so a thin film of gold is applied to the glass of skyscrapers to reduce internal heating from sunlight.
Mercury Hg 80 Metal Rhombohedral 200.59 2,8,18,32,18,2 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 1,2 -38.87C 356.58C 2 1.49 1.02 (+2) 1.76 14.82 cm/mol 10.4375 V 18.759 V 34.202 V (2),1 13.546 g/cm 0.139 J/gK 59.229 kJ/mol 2.295 kJ/mol 0.0104 10^6/cm ohm 0.0834 W/cmK 22 10 MPa 49 10^-6 K^-1 3.005   a=70 32' MER-kyoo-ri From the Roman god Mercury; symbol from Latin: hydrargyrus (liquid silver). Heavy, silver-white metal, liquid at ordinary temperatures. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Virtually all mercury comes from cinnabar or mercury sulfide (HgS). Some sources of red cinnabar are so rich in mercury that droplets of elemental mercury can be found in random samples. Used in thermometers, barometers, and batteries. Also used in electrical switches and mercury-vapor lighting products.
Thallium Tl 81 Metal Hexagonal 204.3833 2,8,18,32,18,3 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1 1,3 303.5C 1457C 10C 2.04 1.48 1.59 (+1) 2.08 17.2 cm/mol 6.1083 V 20.428 V 29.829 V 3,(1) 11.85 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 164.10 kJ/mol 4.142 kJ/mol 0.0617 10^6/cm ohm 0.461 W/cmK 12 10 MPa 29.9 10^-6 K^-1 3.4567   5.5250 THAL-i-em Greek: thallos (green twig), for a bright green line in its spectrum. Soft gray metal that looks like lead. Sir William Crookes 1861 England Found in iron pyrites. Also in crookesite, hutchinsonite and lorandite. Most is recovered from the byproducts of lead and zinc refining. Its compounds are used in rat and ant poisons. Also for detecting infrared radiation.
Lead Pb 82 Metal Cubic: Face centered 207.2 2,8,18,32,18,4 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 2,4 327.502C 1740C 2.33 1.47 1.19 (+2) 1.81 18.17 cm/mol 7.4167 V 15.028 V 31.943 V 4,(2) 11.34 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 177.70 kJ/mol 4.799 kJ/mol 0.0481 10^6/cm ohm 0.353 W/cmK 20 10 MPa 28.8 10^-6 K^-1 4.9504     LED Anglo-Saxon: lead; symbol from Latin: plumbum. Very soft, highly malleable and ductile, blue-white shiny metal. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown Found most often in ores called galena or lead sulfide (PbS). Some is found in its native state. Used in solder, shielding against radiation and in batteries.
Bismuth Bi 83 Metal Rhombohedral 208.98037 2,8,18,32,18,5 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 3,5 271.3C 1560C 5C 2.02 1.46 1.03 (+3) 1.63 21.3 cm/mol 7.289 V 16.687 V 25.559 V (3),5 9.8 g/cm 0.12 J/gK 104.80 kJ/mol 11.30 kJ/mol 0.00867 10^6/cm ohm 0.0787 W/cmK 34 10 MPa 13.4 10^-6 K^-1 4.736   a=57 14' BIZ-meth German: bisemutum, (white mass), Now spelled wismut. Hard, brittle, steel-gray metal with a pink tint. Known to the ancients. Unknown Unknown It can be found free in nature and in minerals like bismuthine (Bi2O3) and in bismuth ochre (Bi2O3) Main use is in pharmaceuticals and low melting point alloys used as fuses.
Polonium Po 84 Metal Monoclinic -208.9824 2,8,18,32,18,6 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 -2,0,2,4,6 254C 962C 2 1.46 -- 1.53 22.23 cm/mol 8.4167 V -- -- (4),2 9.4 g/cm 0.12 J/gK -- -- 0.0219 10^6/cm ohm 0.20 W/cmK 26 10 MPa 23 10^-6 K^-1 3.345     peh-LOW-ni-em Named for Poland, native country of Marie Curie. Silvery-gray, extremely rare, radioactive metal. Pierre and Marie Curie 1898 France Occurs in pitchblende from decay of bismuth. Used in industrial equipment that eliminates static electricity caused by such processes as rolling paper, wire, and sheet metal.
Astatine At 85 Halogen Unknown -209.9871 2,8,18,32,18,7 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 1,3,5,7 302C 337C 2.2 1.45 -- 1.43 -- 9.5 V -- -- (1),3,5,7 -- -- -- -- -- 0.017 W/cmK -- -- --     AS-teh-teen Greek: astatos (unstable). Unstable, radioactive member of the halogen group. D.R.Corson, K.R.MacKenzie, E.Segr 1940 United States Does not occur in nature. Similar to iodine. Produced by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles. Since its isotopes have such short half-lives there are no commercially significant compounds of astatine.
Radon Rn 86 Noble Gas Cubic: Face centered -222.0176 2,8,18,32,18,8 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 0 -71C -61.8C 0 -- -- 1.34 50.5 cm/mol 10.7485 V -- -- 0 0.00973 g/cm 0.09 J/gK 16.40 kJ/mol 2.890 kJ/mol -- 0.0000364 W/cmK -- -- --     RAY-don Variation of the name of another element, radium. Colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive, heavy, noble gas. Fredrich Ernst Dorn 1898 Germany Formed from the decay of radium in the earths crust. Used to treat some forms of cancer.
Francium Fr 87 Alkali Metal Cubic: Body centered -223.0197 2,8,18,32,18,8,1 [Rn] 7s1 1 27C 677C 0.7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- -- -- 0.03 10^6/cm ohm 0.15 W/cmK 2 10 MPa -- --     FRAN-si-em Named for France, the nation of its discovery. Highly rare and unstable, radioactive metal. Marguerite Derey 1939 France Formed by decay of actinium. Chemical properties similar to cesium. Decays to radium or astatine. Since its isotopes have such short half-lives there are no commercially significant compounds of francium.
Radium Ra 88 Alkali Earth Metal Cubic: Body centered -226.0254 2,8,18,32,18,8,2 [Rn] 7s2 2 700C 1140C 0.9 -- 1.62 (+2) -- 45.20 cm/mol 5.2789 V 10.148 V -- 2 5 g/cm 0.12 J/gK -- -- -- 0.186 W/cmK 16 10 MPa 8 10^-6 K^-1 --     RAY-di-em Latin: radius (ray). Silvery-white metal. Intensely radioactive. Pierre and Marie Curie 1898 France Found in uranium ores at 1 part per 3 million parts uranium. Used in treating cancer because of the gamma rays it gives off.
Actinium Ac 89 Transition Metal Cubic: Face centered -227.0278 2,8,18,32,18,9,2 [Rn] 6d1 7s2 -- 1050C 3200C (300C) 1.1 -- -- -- 22.54 cm/mol 5.17 V 12.126 V -- 3 10.07 g/cm -- -- -- -- 0.12 W/cmK 34 10 MPa -- 5.311     ak-TIN-i-em Greek: akis, aktinos (ray). Heavy, silvery-white, very radioactive metal Andr Debierne 1899 France Extremely rare, found in all uranium ores. Usually obtained by treating radium with neutrons in a reactor. It has no significant commercial applications.
Thorium Th 90 Rare Earth Cubic: Face centered 232.0381 2,8,18,32,18,10,2 [Rn] 6d2 7s2 4 1750C 4000C 1.3 1.65 1.05 (+4) -- 19.9 cm/mol 6.08 V 11.504 V 20.003 V 4 11.7 g/cm 0.12 J/gK 514.40 kJ/mol 16.10 kJ/mol 0.0653 10^6/cm ohm 0.540 W/cmK 73 10 MPa 11.0 10^-6 K^-1 5.0847     THOR-i-em Named for Thor, Norse god of thunder. Heavy, gray, soft, malleable, ductile, radioactive metal. Jns Berzelius 1828 Sweden Found in various minerals like monazite and thorite. Used in making strong alloys. Also in ultraviolet photoelectric cells. It is a common ingredient in high-quality lenses. Bombarded with neutrons make uranium-233, a nuclear fuel.
Protactinium Pa 91 Rare Earth Orthorhombic 231.03588 2,8,18,32,20,9,2 [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2 4,5 1600C -- 1.5 -- -- -- 15.0 cm/mol 5.89 V -- -- (5),4 15.4 g/cm 0.12 J/gK -- 12.30 kJ/mol 0.0529 10^6/cm ohm 0.47 W/cmK 100 10 MPa 9.7 10^-6 K^-1 3.925   3.238 PRO-tak-tin-eh-em Greek: proto and actinium (parent of actinium); it forms actinium when it radioactively decays. Very rare, silvery-white, extremely radioactive metal. Fredrich Soddy, John Cranston, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner 1917 England/France Does not occur in nature. Found among fission products of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. It has no significant commercial applications.
Uranium U 92 Rare Earth Orthorhombic 238.0289 2,8,18,32,21,9,2 [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2 2,3,4,5,6 1132C 3818C 1.38 1.42 .81 (+6) -- 12.59 cm/mol 6.1941 V -- -- (6),5,4,3 18.9 g/cm 0.12 J/gK 477.0 kJ/mol 8.520 kJ/mol 0.0380 10^6/cm ohm 0.276 W/cmK 186 10 MPa 13.9 10^-6 K^-1 2.8538 5.8697 4.9550 yoo-RAY-ni-em Named for the planet Uranus. Silvery-white, dense, ductile, malleable, radioactive metal. Martin Klaproth 1789 Germany Occurs in many rocks, but in large amounts only in such minerals as pitchblende and carnotite. For many centuries it was used as a pigment for glass. Now it is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors and in bombs.
Neptunium Np 93 Rare Earth Orthorhombic -237.0482 2,8,18,32,22,9,2 [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 3,4,5,6 640C 3902C 1.36 -- -- -- 11.62 cm/mol 6.2657 V -- -- 6,(5),4,3 20.45 g/cm 0.12 J/gK -- 5.190 kJ/mol 0.00822 10^6/cm ohm 0.063 W/cmK 900 10 MPa 28 10^-6 K^-1 6.663 4.723 4.887 nep-TOO-ni-em Named for the planet Neptune. Rare, silvery radioactive metal. E.M. McMillan, P.H. Abelson 1940 United States Produced by bombarding uranium with slow neutrons. It has no significant commercial applications.
Plutonium Pu 94 Rare Earth Monoclinic -244.0642 2,8,18,32,24,8,2 [Rn] 5f6 7s2 3,4,5,6 641C 3232C 1.28 -- -- -- 12.32 cm/mol 6.06 V -- -- 6,5,(4),3 19.8 g/cm 0.13 J/gK 344.0 kJ/mol 2.840 kJ/mol 0.00666 10^6/cm ohm 0.0674 W/cmK 97 10 MPa 46.7 10^-6 K^-1 6.183 4.822 10.963 ploo-TOE-ni-em Named for the planet Pluto. Silvery-white, extremely radioactive artificially produced metal. G.T.Seaborg, J.W.Kennedy, E.M.McMillan, A.C.Wohl 1940 United States Found rarely in some uranium ores. Made by bombarding uranium with neutrons. Used in bombs and reactors. Small quantities are used in thermo-electric generators.
Americium Am 95 Rare Earth Hexagonal -243.0614 2,8,18,32,25,8,2 [Rn] 5f7 7s2 2,3,4,5,6 994C 2607C 1.3 -- -- -- 17.86 cm/mol 5.993 V -- -- 6,5,4,(3) 13.6 g/cm 0.11 J/gK -- 14.40 kJ/mol 0.022 10^6/cm ohm 0.1 W/cmK -- 7.1 10^-6 K^-1 3.4681   11.240 am-er-ISH-i-em Named for the American continent, by analogy with europium. Silvery-white, artificially produced radioactive metal. G.T.Seaborg, R.A.James, L.O.Morgan, A.Ghiorso 1945 United States Produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons. Americium-241 is currently used in smoke detectors.
Curium Cm 96 Rare Earth Hexagonal -247.0703 2,8,18,32,25,9,2 [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 3,4 1340C -- 1.3 -- -- -- 18.28 cm/mol 6.02 V -- -- (3),4 13.5 g/cm -- -- 15.0 kJ/mol -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     KYOOR-i-em Named in honor of Pierre and Marie Curie. Silvery, malleable, synthetic radioactive metal. G.T.Seaborg, R.A.James, A.Ghiorso 1944 United States Made by bombarding plutonium with helium ions. So radioactive it glows in the dark. It has no significant commercial applications.
Berkelium Bk 97 Rare Earth Unknown -247.0703 2,8,18,32,26,9,2 [Rn] 5f9 7s2 3,4 -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.23 V -- -- 4,(3) -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     BURK-li-em Named after Berkeley, California the city of its discovery. Synthetic radioactive metal. G.T.Seaborg, S.G.Tompson, A.Ghiorso 1949 United States Some compounds have been made and studied. Made by bombarding americium with alpha particles. It has no significant commercial applications.
Californium Cf 98 Rare Earth Unknown -251.0796 2,8,18,32,28,8,2 [Rn] 5f10 7s2 -- -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.30 V -- -- 4,(3) -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     kal-eh-FOR-ni-em Named after the state and University of California. Synthetic radioactive metal. Powerful neutron emitter. G.T.Seaborg, S.G.Tompson, A.Ghiorso, K.Street Jr. 1950 United States Made by bombarding curium with helium ions. It has no significant commercial applications.
Einsteinium Es 99 Rare Earth Unknown -252.083 2,8,18,32,29,8,2 [Rn] 5f11 7s2 -- -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.42 V -- -- (2),3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     ine-STINE-i-em Named in honor of the scientist Albert Einstein. Synthetic radioactive metal. Argonne, Los Alamos, U of Calif 1952 United States Made by bombarding uranium with neutrons. It has no significant commercial applications.
Fermium Fm 100 Rare Earth Unknown -257.0951 2,8,18,32,30,8,2 [Rn] 5f12 7s2 -- -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.50 V -- -- 3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     FER-mi-em Named in honor of the scientist Enrico Fermi. Synthetic radioactive metal. Argonne, Los Alamos, U of Calif 1953 United States Produced by bombarding lighter transuranium elements with still lighter particles or by neutron capture. It has no significant commercial applications.
Mendelevium Md 101 Rare Earth Unknown -258.0984 2,8,18,32,31,8,2 [Rn] 5f13 7s2 2,3 -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.58 V -- -- 2,3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     men-deh-LEE-vi-em Named in honor of the scientist Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeleyev, who devised the periodic table. Synthetic radioactive metal. G.T.Seaborg, S.G.Tompson, A.Ghiorso, K.Street Jr. 1955 United States Made by bombarding einsteinium with helium ions. It has no significant commercial applications.
Nobelium No 102 Rare Earth Unknown -259.1011 2,8,18,32,32,8,2 [Rn] 5f14 7s2 -- -- -- 1.3 -- -- -- -- 6.65 V -- -- 2,3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     no-BELL-i-em Named in honor of Alfred Nobel, who invented dynamite and founded Nobel prize. Synthetic radioactive metal. Nobel Institute for Physics 1957 Sweden Made by bombarding curium with carbon-13 It has no significant commercial applications.
Lawrencium Lr 103 Rare Earth Unknown -262.1098 2,8,18,32,32,9,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 W/cmK -- -- --     lor-ENS-i-em Named in honor of Ernest O. Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron. Synthetic radioactive metal. A.Ghiorso, T.Sikkeland, A.E.Larsh, R.M.Latimer 1961 United States Produced by bombarding californium with boron ions. It has no significant commercial applications.
Rutherfordium Rf 104 Transition Metal Unknown -261.1089 2,8,18,32,32,10,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 4 -- -- -- -- -- 0.23 W/cmK -- -- --     ruth-er-FORD-i-em Named in honor of Ernest Rutherford Synthetic radioactive metal. A. Ghiorso, et al 1969 United States Made by bombarding californium-249 with beams of carbon-12 and 13, which produced an isotope with half lives of 4+ and 3 sec. It has no significant commercial applications.
Hahnium Ha 105 Transition Metal Unknown -262.1144 2,8,18,32,32,11,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.58 W/cmK -- -- --     HA-ni-em Named in honor of Otto Hahn Synthetic radioactive metal. A. Ghiorso, et al 1970 United States Made by bombarding californium-249 with a beam of nitrogen-15 It has no significant commercial applications.
Seaborgium Sg 106 Transition Metal Unknown -263.1186 2,8,18,32,32,12,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     see-BORG-i-em Named in honor of Glenn Seaborg, American physical chemist known for research on transuranium elements. Synthetic radioactive metal. Soviet Nuclear Research/ U. of Cal at Berkeley 1974 USSR/United States Made by bombarding californium-249 with oxygen-18. It has no significant commercial applications.
Nielsbohrium Ns 107 Transition Metal Unknown -262.1231 2,8,18,32,32,13,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     neels-BOR-i-em Named in honor of Niels Bohr Synthetic radioactive metal. Heavy Ion Research Laboratory (HIRL) 1976 Germany Obtained by bombarding bismuth-204 with chromium-54. It has no significant commercial applications.
Hessium Hs 108 Transition Metal Unknown -265.1306 2,8,18,32,32,14,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     HES-i-em Named in honor of Henri Hess, Swiss born Russian chemist known for work in thermodydamics. Synthetic radioactive metal. Heavy Ion Research Laboratory (HIRL) 1984 Germany Formed by the bombardment of lead-208 with iron-58. It has no significant commercial applications.
Mietnerium Mt 109 Transition Metal Unknown -266.1378 2,8,18,32,32,15,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     MITE-ner-i-um Named in honor of Lise Mietner Synthetic radioactive metal. Heavy Ion Research Laboratory (HIRL) 1982 Germany Obtained by bombarding bismuth-209 with iron-58. It has no significant commercial applications.
Unnunnilium Unn 110 Transition Metal Unknown -268 2,8,18,32,32,16,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     oon-nun-NIL-i-em Un (one) nun (one) nilium (zero) Synthetic radioactive metal. Heavy Ion Research Laboratory (HIRL) 1994 Germany Made by bombarding bismuth-209 with cobolt-59. It has no significant commercial applications.
Unnununium Unu 111 Transition Metal Unknown -269 2,8,18,32,32,17,2 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --     oon-nun-OON-i-em Un (one) nun (one) unium (one) Synthetic radioactive metal. Heavy Ion Research Laboratory (HIRL) 1994 Germany Made by bombarding bismuth-209 with nickel-60. It has no significant commercial applications.

Last Updated on 11/14/98