## TECHNICAL  QUESTIONS

Are the Portable Power Supplies perpetual motion machines?

Why is the output of the playback head(s) nearly like the Direct Current?

## TECHNICAL  QUESTIONS  &  ANSWERS

Are the Portable Power Supplies perpetual motion machines?

Nothing is perpetual, even the Universe. In practice, the output power of an Electromotive Device depends on either the input power of that Device (e.g, a Generator) or the Energy which is stored within the Device (e.g, a Battery). Also, the Nuclear Reactors produce much power for years but they are not perpetual. The same with the Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes, with the Difference that the output power of a Prototype Playback Head (1/2 inch width) is of order Watt, not MegaWatt.

Why is the output power of the playback head or heads more than required power for the tape motion?

The Energy which is stored – in Magnetic Field form – into the Space of a magnetic tape is of the order Thousands of Billions of Joule because EACH magnetic particle has its own Hysteresis Loop which conveys the compression of the Energy into the Space (Tesla x Ampere/metre = Joule/cubic metre). This is the Scientific/Theoretical explanation of why the output power of the playback head(s) is much more than input power of the motor which moves the tape.

How is the above Energy found in a magnetic tape and why does NOT the tapes fabrication require such huge amounts of Energy?

The required Energy for the particles magnetization does not have ANY relation with the Energy which is stored into the Space of a magnetic tape BECAUSE the Hysteresis Loop is a Fundamental Property of any magnetic material and it does NOT have any relation with the required power for the Fabrication of Magnetic Materials.

Why are the output voltage and current of the playback head(s) as high as of order volt and ampere, respectively?

The output voltage of the playback head is of order volts because of the Faraday's Law while the voltage drop into the head is extremely small because of the very low impedance of the playback head (of order milliOhm).

Why does NOT the tape decelerate when a current flows into the playback head, as occurs when a permanent magnet passes over a coil?

The Difference is the Cause of the Induced Current, because of the Lenz's Law: The induced current flows always in such a direction as to oppose the change causing it. In the case of a permanent magnet, the change is the magnet motion; while in the case of a magnetic tape, the change is the magnetic transcript into the tape coating. So, the induced current tries to Demagnetize the tape, through the front gap of the playback head.

Why does NOT the induced current demagnetize the tape?

In order for the induced current to demagnetize the tape, the coercive force at the front gap of the playback head must be higher than tape coercivity. The tape coercivity is entirely different from particle coercivity. So, if the coercive force at the gap is extremely high, the magnetic transcript into the tape coating is being destroyed (erasure mode) and the tape, not the particles, needs magnetization again (recording mode).

Why is the output of the playback head(s) nearly like the Direct Current?

Because of the Derivation of the Magnetic Flux over the Time (Sawtooth Waveform).

Why can not we use a 1/2" belt (instead of tape) consisting of permanent magnets (rectangular triangles-shaped, like the tape magnetic transcript of the sawtooth wave e.g, 1 cm & 5 cm for the two vertical sides of the rectangular triangles)?

Because in this case, the wavelength is 1 cm. So, if the number of turns of the laminated ring-shaped head is 100 then the required belt speed is 2.36 m/s at least, if we want 12 V output voltage (assuming that the induction of the permanent magnets is 0.8 Tesla). The proper belt speed depends on the head efficiency (depending on the gap depth and length). The gap depth must be 5 cm at least; if it is shallower than 5 cm then the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets will saturate the head core at the poles area (the non-linearity up to 0.8 Tesla is a different problem that is soluble). Concerning the gap length, if it is shorter than 1 mm then the head efficiency becomes low, while if it is longer than 1 cm then the coercive force of the back-magnetomotive force at the poles area becomes too risky to the magnets coercivity, that depends on the Demagnetization Curve of the permanent magnets.
Given that the belt weighs much more than tape and plastic drum, concluded that the required power for the belt motion becomes inexpediently high.

Why can not we use a Transformer to supply the sawtooth waveform at the primary coil so that we have Direct Current at the secondary coil?

A Transformer does not store Energy. Whatever current flows into the secondary coil, there is aftermath at the primary coil. So, the back-magnetomotive force of the secondary coil opposes the magnetomotive force of the primary coil, compelling it to consume power from the source.

How is the maximum back-magnetomotive force possible (300A) of the playback head calculated?

The maximum back-magnetomotive force possible of the playback head depends on the tape coercivity. The coercive force at the gap is calculated from the Ampere's Circuit Law, so the maximum allowable back-magnetomotive force is 300A or more. (The exact value depends on both imponderable factors and non-, such as fabricating tolerance of the front gap due to glass bonding process, biasing during the recording process, nominal front gap length, reproducing frequency, tape type etc).

Does the friction between the tape and head(s) affect the required power for the tape motion?

NO, because of:
1.
The contact area between the tape and head(s) is very little and smooth.
2.  The pressure of each head onto the tape is very slight due to the foamy plastic material onto the drum.
So, even if there are many heads round the drum (62 mm diameter), the total friction forces between the tape and heads are trivial in relation to the force of mini DC motor (e.g, 6V / 0.3A).

Is the motor accelerating for ever IF the output voltage of the playback head is higher than input voltage of the motor?

NO, because when the reproducing frequency reaches the Ferrimagnetic Resonance of the head core, then the core permeability is abruptly reduced, so the output voltage of the playback head is also reduced and the motor is tended to slow down, even if the tape coercivity is very high (inconstancy mode). This is why the output voltage of the playback head and the input voltage of the motor must be equal (there is a tolerance of about 0.3V, depending on the motor construction).

Can we have adjustable output voltage?

Yes we can. If a Customer wants adjustable output voltage (0 - 12V) then we are using two playback heads, one for the motor (constant output voltage) and one for the load, using tracking adjustment so that the output voltage of the 2nd playback head is lower than voltage of best tracking, although the 1st playback head may have constant poor tracking if this is desirable (e.g, 12V best tracking, 6V poor tracking).

## GENERAL  QUESTIONS  &  ANSWERS

Are there samples available?

I Demonstrate my invention using Standardized Ferrite Tape Heads Of Longitudinal Recording Format (e.g, Digital Linear Tape Drive Heads). Because of the Security Problems, it is not possible to locate a Manufacturer or Supplier of such heads. So, I put the Relevant Information on the World Wide Web so that Anyone does not have Security Problems.

Is it patented?

Because of the Fuels Smuggling Interests, that I specify in the Cooperation Agreement of Project Description page, No One gives Patent for the Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes. After overcoming of the mentioned Interests, it can be specifically patented. According to the Global Trends nowadays, the Electric Power Markets Deregulation provides support to a wide range of electricity products including the PPS. In order for other energy products to compete this invention, they must be as cheap, practical, clean and safe energy sources as the PPS in all of their forms: from thin flat PPS for RAM chips, up to mobile power supplies for the Transportation Industry and factories equipment.

Why is the project's information available on the Internet since it is Confidential?

Confidential means that I am the Author of this Censored information, thus I am obliged to publish it myself. After the Assaults against United States, there are suspicions that some oil industry executives are involved in these horrible attacks. The Mass Media seem to be controlled by the above Interests. Probably, the only way that we can make public this project / invention is the World Wide Web. The more the web sites that link to this site, the easier the way that we inform the People about the PPS. Web-Based press releases from any Publishers are also helpful. After the web site publicity, we will easily be able to publish this invention in the Mass Media.

What are the Integrated Solutions for the Unemployment due to the PPS?

These Solutions concern:

1.  The Large Savings due to Negligible Energy Cost. This implies Very Important Reduction of Production Costs of any Product or Service. So, the Cost Of Living becomes very low.
2.  The above Savings allow the Reduction of Working Time so that additional number of Employees can work at the same Job. In addition, there are Too Many Industrial Applications which are not in use now, because they are Inexpediently Energy-Consuming (e.g, Galvanic Applications or Recycling Industry).
3.  New Portable Devices will be available in the Market e.g, wearable advertising video, warmable clothes, compact wearable fans etc. Especially for e-clothing applications (electronic clothes), LCD or light emitting polymer screens can be used so that there is not any distrust regarding the Health Issues.

I am seeking to talk this matter at large but for purposes of clarity, we need a Conference for this Discussion, so that there are Spokesmen of all interesting parties (Thermomechanics Industry, Magnetic Recording Industry, Optical Storage Industry etc). The Impact is that:
The Rewritable Optical Media such as DVD+RW, DVD-RW & DVD-RAM (Phase Change Technology) threaten the Jobs of the Magnetic Recording Industry and the Portable Power Supplies threaten the Jobs of the Thermomechanics Industry. Thus, my opinion is that the above Industry Parties must accommodate the Two Conflicting Marketplaces / Market Sectors: Energy Market & Information Storage Market.

According to future plans of the Optical Storage Industry, the blue laser beam technology will offer storage capacities of the order decades of GigaBytes, like the today's hard disc drives, although the blue laser DVD-ROM & rewritable DVDs will not be compatible with the today's red laser DVD players & DVD-ROM drives. However, the advantage of the optical media is the removability, not the storage capacity since the prospects of the Hard Disc Drives Industry appear storage capacities of the order hundreds of GigaBytes over the next years. But at the same time, the Semiconductors Industry gets ready to approach RAM chips of order GigaBytes and later, of the order decades of GigaBytes. This means that when the RAM chips price (with storage capacity of the order decades of GigaBytes) is going to be as low as the today's price of 64 MB RAM chips, then, the optical storage media would face a strong competition from the semiconductors technology; the RAM chips will be utilizing thin flat PPS as power supply solution for information storage of order years.

A different approach of the optical recording technology concerns the Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), which will offer storage capacities of more than One TeraByte and retrieval rate about One GigaBit per second, combining blue lasers and a hundred of layers. However, there are not yet official discussions about compatibility with other blue laser recording formats. But these optical recording media & their drives could become the mainstream storage solution in the next years, if their price (both drive and disc) is comparable to the hard disc drives price; unless the HDDs reach the TeraByte limit before the FMD-RAM does it, by adding more platters and/or using even more sensitive giant magnetoresistive heads & disc media.

As long as there is not financial support for the above rewritable optical media (either red or blue laser DVD-RAM, FMD-RAM or other competitive technologies), the Jobs of the Magnetic Storage Companies are Safe.

The proposed business plan for this Investment / Project is based on the perception that the Thermomechanics Industry can not control the World for ever. Besides, the phase change technology of the optical recording media was funded by the fuels industry before 1997. Nowadays, the technological threat for the magnetic storage media is permanent. So, the Information Storage Industry constitutes the "backbone" of the very powerful Computers Industry & Consumer Electronics Industry and:

1.  The Growing of Information Societies in developed & developing countries, offers People the ability to exchange information easily & cheaply through the Internet, even though some reports try to defame the Internet by exploiting the lay-offs and slow down in some tech sectors. The point is that the Global Internet Population is growing fast because People are pleased to communicate each other, using e-mail, chat, newsgroups, visiting web sites, participating in public discussion forums & message boards etc.
2.  The Air-Pollution Impacts (Breathing Problems, Global Warming, Climate Changes etc), due to internal combustion engines, require safe and clean energy sources even though some meteorologists say that the global warming effect is due to natural reasons such as volcanos' activities or solar activation rise. The point is that the today's Thermal Transportation Means along with Electric Power Industry, which generally utilizes coal or oil power plants, are responsible for almost all the gas emissions which either overheat the planet or deprive our clean air.
3.  The Digital TV requires removable digital recording / storage solutions. The digital VCR, which is proposed as recording solution by some Consumer Electronics Corporations, offers VHS compatibility but it raises reliability issues due to its helical scan format and complication. Hence, a more reliable digital solution is required, that means Digital VCR of longitudinal recording format based on either DLT drives technology or Linear Tape Open (LTO) technology. Besides, both LTO Ultrium and Super DLT formats will offer storage capacity of more than One TeraByte. Secondarily, the Super DLT is using Laser-Guided Magnetic Recording technology and incorporates both magnetic and optical advantages, resulting in a very successful cooperation between magnetic and optical engineering Jobs.

After the Assaults against USA, there are suspicions that the fuels industry may benefit from some unexpected lawsuits between magnetic storage corporations or data storage divisions of electronics' industries. For example, the Imation Corp. sues Quantum Corporation for violation of anti-trust laws and vice-versa, Quantum Corporation sues Imation Corp. for inappropriate usage of trade secrets. Although I do not have any idea about who have really right, certainly such events do not benefit the magnetic storage industry.
The catch of these lawsuits consists in scenarios about possible turmoils, if a tape cartridge develops faults resulting in data loss of a back-up system. In this case, Imation can blame the Quantum's DLT drive for the data loss and vice-versa, Quantum can blame the uncertified Imation's cartridge for the data loss. The result of this conjectured turmoil can be defamation of the magnetic media and, sequentially, any trade secrets about DLT media could become useless.

On the other hand, almost all the Industries are facing occasionally such problems but because of the fuels industry yearns for shake off the magnetic recording media, only for this reason, the magnetic storage industry must have sound front. Officially, the fuel companies necessarily have custom relations with the magnetic storage companies, in order to meet their data storage needs.

Basil Dimitropoulos
Electrical Engineer
104 - 106 Kremou Street, Kallithea, Athens 176-76  GREECE
1st E-Mail: pps@groovy.gr   2nd E-Mail: basild@in.gr
TEL:  +30-10-9590530, FAX:  +30-10-9615853
URL:  http://users.groovy.gr/~pps/