Time Travel Research Center
© 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 - Turkey/Denizli
Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics To Tap
Floyd Sweet, Association of Distinguished
2311 Big Cove Road, Huntsville, Alabama 358010
T. E. Bearden,
Association of Distinguished American Scientists
2311 Big Cove Road, Huntsville, Alabama 35801
(Also published in: Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety
Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC Conf),
August 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts. Vol 4, Advanced Energy Concepts, pp.
Copyright © 1991 by T.E. Bearden & F. Sweet. All Rights
Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904
papers which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a
standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly engineering
the ambient potential of the vacuum has been developed and realized
Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to
classical electro-magnetics, quantum mechanics, and general relativity
produces supersets of each discipline. These supersets are joined by the
common Whittaker subset, producing a unified field theory that is
engineerable and tested.
By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase
conjugate mirror, several working model energy units have been produced
which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local virtual
photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish coherent self-oscillations
between the local excited vacuum and the affected nuclei, utilize the self-oscillating
standing wave for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny
signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load circuit a
powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate replica wave at 60 Hertz
frequency and nominal 120 volt sine wave power.
Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts
early on to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed batteryless systems with damped
positive feedback and open loop systems with battery-powered input have been
successfully built. Open loop power gains of from 5 x 104 to 1.5
x 106 have been achieved.
Antigravity experiments have also been successfully
conducted where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled
experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an output of 1
The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and
experimental results presented. In the demonstration session, a videotape of
one operating open-loop unit with a 1.5 x 106 power gain is
planned, as is the demonstration of an actual working model closed-loop
system with a nominal rating of 500 watts, and without external power input
of any kind.
The units are solid state, with no moving parts. Each of
them comprises a unique form of self-powered vacuum triode of extraordinary
gain, where the cathode power and plate power are freely furnished by the
vacuum, and only a small grid signal need be furnished either from an
external power source or by clamped positive feedback from the device's
output. The output is negative energy, and some of its unique
characteristics are pointed out.
Implications of the experimental application of the Sweet
vacuum triode, the Bearden approach to the nucleus as a pumped phase
conjugate mirror, and the unified field theory based on Whittaker's
engineerable hidden variable scalar EM potential theory are also briefly
In 1837 Sir W.R. Hamilton said,
"The notion of time may be unfolded into an
independent pure science... a science of pure time is possible."
As is well-known, the fundamental units utilized in
physics are arbitrary. It is even possible to construct all of physics on a
single unit, time. This oddity shows the truth in Hamilton's statement; it
is even more odd, because quantum mechanically time is not an observable.
This means that the observable world can be modeled completely in terms of
the nonobservable, which is essentially what modern quantum mechanics is now
Hamilton viewed his magnificent quaternions as
essentially having accomplished the mathematical structuring of time.
Maxwell's original EM theory, as is well-known, was modeled in Hamilton's
quaternions, not in the highly curtailed Heaviside/Hertz vectors
erroneously taught today as "Maxwell's theory."
Not a single one of the present so-called "Maxwell's"
vector equations ever appeared in a book or paper by James Clerk Maxwell.
For some years the author has worked on an extended
electromagnetics theory, involving the scalar component of the quaternion. [Ref.
In Maxwell's original quaternion theory, this
scalar component often remains when the directional components zero. Further,
it then enfolds vectors and functions of vectors inside, in a hidden
variable manner. Specifically, the author has patterned a unified field
theory concept upon the previously unnoticed but remarkable early work of
E.T. Whittaker. [Ref.
In two fundamental papers in 1903 and 1904, Whittaker
showed that all present vector EM can be replaced by scalar potential
interferometry, and that bidirectional harmonic EM plane wave sets could be
used to produce a standing wave of force-field-free potential (Figures 1 and
NOTE: SHAPE MAY BE ALL
ABOVE OR ALL BELOW
AMBIENT VACUUM POTENTIAL
Thus Whittaker anticipated the quantum mechanical
Aharonov/Bohm effect by 55 years, including extending it to the macroscopic
world instead of the mesoscopic realm where it has been established to date.
In modern terms, Whittaker showed how to turn EM wave
energy into electrogravitational potential energy, then how to interfere two
such scalar potential waves to recover electromagnetic energy, even at a
This unrecognized work is of great importance: when
applied to modern physics, it produces supersets of quantum mechanics (QM),
classical electromagnetics (EM), and general relativity (GR).
Further, all three extended disciplines unify on their
common Whittaker subset, in a testable and engineerable fashion. [Ref.
Figure 2. Infolded EM plane
wave structure of a Whittaker wave.
The Nucleus As a PPCM and Triode
The author has also considered the highly nonlinear
nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM), having found
no other consideration of same in the literature.
The author also dubbed a PPCM a "triode," since the
amplified phase conjugate replica of the signal wave is much like the
amplified output of a triode, and the signal wave input to a PPCM is much
like a triode's grid signal input. The PPCM pump wave then corresponds
roughly to the power input to the cathode and plate of a triode. [Ref.
Figure 3. A pumped phase
VACUUM TRIODE BACKGROUND
About seven years ago, the author was privileged to see
and examine an invention of Mr. Floyd Sweet, that produced about 6 watts of
electrical power from the vacuum itself.
This remarkable device, which the author dubbed a
vacuum triode, in a single unit utilized most of the scalar EM concepts
the author had so painfully and slowly formulated over the years.
Sweet, a brilliant inventor with a remarkable knowledge
of magnetics, had utilized barium ferrite magnets and special coils to
produce a solid-state device that successfully tapped the vacuum energy.
The author quickly put together a theoretical concept for
the energy-tapping mechanism, based on treatment of the nucleus as a PPCM
and Whittaker's scalar EM potential unified field theory. [Ref.
The author furnished the technical concept, treating the
nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, to the inventor along with
copies of Whittaker's papers.
Sweet's Synthesis and Extension
Sweet is also a brilliant EM theoretician, working in
four, five, or even six dimensions with ease. He immediately synthesized the
entire PPCM and Whittaker theory, and developed a complete theoretical
treatment of the device. [Ref.
He also increased the nuclear potential utilized in the
activated nuclei of the device, which increased the pumping energy and hence
the energy output. He next produced an open-loop vacuum triode (VT) with an
output of 500 watts, for an input of 33 microwatts.
Thereafter he produced several other models, including
closed-loop systems and one with 5-KW output.
Purpose of This Paper
Our purpose is to explain the detailed scalar EM concept
of the operation of the vacuum triode, since it is a universal method for
cohering and tapping useful EM energy from the vacuum.
The author believes that this mechanism is the
fundamental mechanism that must be invoked in any over-unity device that
electromagnetically extracts vacuum energy as electromagnetic effects.
We also intend to demonstrate a full working model of the
device at this conference. Sweet's detailed theoretical treatment will be
completed and submitted to a major journal shortly, to complete the
scientific exposition of the new methodology.
I must also express my deep admiration for my brilliant
inventor colleague. It has been a privilege to work with him, though under
great difficulties and at a distance. He has developed several other related
devices that are of great importance to the emerging new physics of
vacuum engineering, in the sense referred to by Lee. [Ref.
To mention just one, he has produced a magnetic lens
which apparently can directly display the vacuum's virtual particle flux, or
a good analog of it. So far as I am aware, this is the only extant
instrument today that can perform this feat.
When the vacuum triode has been proven to the scientific
community, it is my intention to nominate Sweet for the Nobel Prize he so
richly deserves, and seek high scientific endorsements for the
As is well known, in any closed dynamic system the order
existing in it will gradually be dissipated, as more and more interactions
occur. This leads to the notion of entropy as the increasing disorder
in such systems. The assumptions are
a closed system, and
a positive flow of time for the components of the
Actually no such thing as a completely closed system
exists in nature. Every mass system is open to virtual particle flux
exchange with the vacuum, for example, particularly in the nucleus of its
atoms, where the bulk of its mass is located.
However, the closed system assumption is reasonably
approximated by a great many systems which are in stable thermodynamic
equilibrium, or nearly so.
On the other hand, in an open system far from
thermodynamic equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics does not
necessarily apply, because the system violates both the closed system
assumption and its equilibrium approximation. [Ref.
Since being discovered in 1972 in the open Soviet
literature, the time-reversed (phase conjugate) EM wave has also been known.
The phase conjugate EM wave is truly time-reversed, as has been shown
experimentally. Since the time-reversed EM wave violates the second major
assumption, the second law of thermodynamics need not necessarily hold for
Putting all this together, if one wishes negentropy and
hence increased energy in a system, the candidate suggested would appear to
be a system that was strongly
far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
A good overview of time-reversal in physics has been
provided by Sachs. [Ref.
Engineering the Nucleus
Since the nucleus already provides a myriad of time-reversed
processes, engineering the nucleus of an atom is a very good candidate for
To engineer the nucleus directly, a Whittaker potential
is first artificially constructed, by composing a harmonic set of phase-locked
EM wave/antiwave pairs. It is accented that the antiwaves must be true phase
conjugates; otherwise they will not constitute a gradient-free Whittaker
standing potential wave.
In addition, at least one harmonic interval must be used,
and additional harmonic sets are most desirable. The reason is that a space-time
lattice must be formed in the vacuum, where the energy is additive spatially
but oppositive in t-dot, the rate of flow of time, in the fourth dimension.
So a time-structure is required as well as a spatial
structure, which is what is provided by n bidirectional
harmonic Whittaker EM wave sets, where n is an integer greater
Once a specific Whittaker structure has been chosen, the
local lattice of space-time is established. This establishes phase-locked
lattice groupings of coupled photon/antiphoton pairs, or of gravitons.
In turn, this Whittaker-structured vacuum now contains specific graviton
vacuum engines, which directly engineer and structure the vacuum's
virtual particle flux (VPF) exchange with the nucleus. [Ref.
The nucleus is highly nonlinear, hence strongly phase
conjugative, or time-reversed. The ambient potential of the local vacuum
surrounding the nucleus is in a violent virtual photon exchange with it,
accounting for its electrical charge.
Since the preponderant charge is positive, from the
viewpoint of the ordinary light observer whose light interacts with electron
shells, the nucleus may be taken to exhibit time reversal (phase conjugation).
Energy, Time, and Gravitons
We take the definition of "energy" to be fundamentally an
ordering imposed upon the VPF of vacuum. We take photon scattering from the
electron shells of atoms to be the fundamental exterior mechanism producing
forward flow of external observer time.
It then follows that "time's arrow" for the EM observer
is due to the universal scattering of photons from electron shells.
In this view, forward (positive) time flow and entropy
are due to the same primary action: photon scattering from electron shells.
It is unfortunate that the concept of "positive" energy has been tied to,
and defined in terms of, the scattering and dissipation of VPF order as
work, or energy expended.
Via the standard labeling, then, negative energy is the
reconstitution of order in the vacuum VPF. It should be noted that, in a
PPCM, dissipative or external pump wave stress energy can be scavenged and
re-emitted in perfect order as the phase conjugate replica. This is a
negentropic process, for it is capable of turning disorder into order. [Ref.
In the time-reversed PPCM nucleus, we should expect to
see appreciable negative energythat
is, energy removed from the EM scattering domain. This includes the binding
energy of the nucleus, and the gravitational (G) potential energy of the EM
energy removed from the "scattering interaction realm" and locked into the
Following Sakharov, we hold that the G-field is not a
fundamental field of nature, but a composite caused by, or made from, other
To the first order, we assume the G-potential is
comprised of coupled photon/antiphoton pairs, on the average, where the
statistical coupled spin-2 photon/antiphoton pair is a graviton. [Ref.
We follow the modern view of the field: because of vacuum
fluctuations, rigorously one no longer speaks of "the" field, but of the
probability of a particular field configuration. [Ref.
We also hold the vacuum to be composed of potentials, and
regard the three terms space-time, vacuum, and scalar potential
as essentially synonymous.
Newton's Third Law and the Detection
The VPF EM stress of the local vacuum immediately
surrounding the nucleus may be decomposed a la Whittaker into opposing
bidirectional EM plane waves/forces. Thus the nonlinear nucleus may be
regarded as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, normally with a gain of one.
In this view, Newton's third law reaction force is
generated because the so-called "photon" interaction with an atom is in fact
a graviton reaction involving a photon/antiphoton pair that is decoupled.
The decoupled photon normally is absorbed and reradiated
by an orbital electron, while the decoupled antiphoton interacts with the
nucleus, producing a time-reversed twin of the external forceor,
in other words, Newton's third law reaction force, which gives a slight
recoil of the nucleus.
Half of every measurement physicists normally make is
discarded, with the missing half accounting only for Newtonian reaction in
the meter or instrument, which is usually ignored.
The fact that half of our measurement interactions are
ignored is occasionally discovered and noted by physicists, who may even
write a paper pointing it out, but no change is instituted in the
Semiconducting Vacuum and Self-Oscillation
The vacuum immediately surrounding the nucleus is
structured by the nucleus, and is itself nonlinear and capable of acting as
a semiconductor. [Ref.
Since both this immediately local semiconductor vacuum
and the nucleus it surrounds are highly nonlinear, then nonlinear
resonance can conceivably be established between them.
Further, since the resonating system in such case is an
open system away from thermodynamic equilibrium, the oscillation can be self-sustaining.
Such self-oscillation of the pumping of a PCM is already well-known in the
nonlinear optical literature, particularly with compounds containing barium.
THE VACUUM TRIODE
The Basic Concept
As is well-known, a stress can be decomposed into
opposing sets of forces. But quantum mechanically, the forces we are
interested in with our work here are all caused electromagnetically,
by the exchange of virtual photons. Even mechanical force, according to QM,
is caused in this manner. Thus opposing electromagnetic or mechanical "stress"
sets of bidirectional EM forces are microscopically equivalent to the notion
of pump waves in nonlinear optics.
Hence under the proper conditions, it follows that
trapped EM stress energy of the vacuum can be utilized to "pump" the nucleus.
Treating the stress-pumped nonlinear nucleus as a PPCM,
it follows that the stress energy of the vacuum can be tapped by a 4-wave
mixing mechanism in the atomic nucleus, to provide amplified phase conjugate
EM wave outputs from the atom in response to small signal wave inputs. [Ref.
In the proper nonlinear material, the material may act as
a PPCM, in which case there exists a suitable connection between the
material's atomic nuclei and its external electromagnetic lattice bonds, and
the amplified phase conjugate replica wave generated in the nucleus will be
emitted from the material as an EM wave field. This field can then be tapped
by suitable means and output to an external load circuit.
Block Diagram of the Vacuum Triode
Figure 4 shows a basic block diagram of the vacuum triode
process, utilized by Sweet in several laboratory vacuum energy devices.
These devices have ranged from a nominal 500 watt output in a 6-lb. device
to 5 kilowatts for a heavier unit. Gains have ranged from 50,000 to
1,500,000 for open-loop systems. Both open-loop and closed-loop systems have
been built and tested.
Figure 4 shows a combined block diagram for either a
closed-loop or open-loop system. In the open-loop system, a barium ferrite
magnetic material is used as a pumped phase conjugate mirror.
In the "standard" design, two opposing PPCMs are used.
The advantage of this dual combination is the use of self-targeting (repetitive
phase conjugation, signal by signal). This has the effect of
stabilizing the Whittaker field, and
producing a quantum potential between the two mirrors,
so the mirrors and the Whittaker potential between them are essentially
one single space-time entity.
Discussion of a quantum potential is beyond the scope of
this paper, but the technical mechanism for creating one has been previously
presented by the author on several occasions. [Ref.
First we will explain the open-loop operation of the
vacuum triode. In Figure 4, on the right an external 60 Hz, nominal 10 volt
AC sine wave of several tens of microwatts in power is input into the
stabilized field of the barium ferrite magnet structure, where it modulates
the field, producing a signal wave input into the atoms of the material.
In the top right block, the EM signal wave interacts with
the electron shell of an atom, which in turn is EM-coupled to the nucleus.
Figure 4. The Vacuum Triode
Thus an EM signal wave is input to the nucleus of the
atom, which is highly nonlinear (middle top block). Earlier, Sweet had
specifically conditioned the atomic nuclei with a proprietary process,
wherein in the barium nucleus a trapped 60 Hz scalar EM spherical wave
resonance (self-oscillation) exists between the structured semiconductor
vacuum immediately surrounding the Ba nucleus.
In the same activation process, the ambient
potential of the surrounding vacuum was raised and stabilized, in the two
At this point the nonlinear nucleus is effectively self-pumped
by the trapped, excited, spherical scalar wave oscillation between the
structured semiconductor vacuum and the nucleus. The nucleus is now a
strongly pumped phase conjugate mirror.
Consequently, when the signal wave input arrives, the
PPCM nucleus emits an amplified phase conjugate replica (PCR) wave, which
precisely backtracks the input signal wave. This precise backtracking (perfect
retroreflection) is referred to as the "distortion correction theorem."
In short, the powerful PCR wave returns precisely toward
the external source, passing through the electron shells and arriving in the
perturbed barium ferrite magnet assembly field, where it perturbs the field.
A transformer-like system then extracts this magnetic
field perturbation and conducts it to the external load circuit.
However, the PCR contains negative energy. Short
of the load, the internal circuits run cool, rather than heating. This is a
signature of a true vacuum energy tapping device.
Indeed, if the output leads of the Sweet vacuum triode
are physically shorted together, a brilliant flash occurs, and the leads
instantly ice as if dipped in liquid oxygen. This is another signature of
the true negentropic over-unity vacuum tap.
Note that the energy extracted from the semiconducting
vacuum adjacent to the nucleus is just instantly replaced by the surrounding
vacuum's inexhaustible energy pool. This is an open-loop system, with a
hidden energy source: the intense virtual particle flux of the vacuum's
It is not possible to exhaust that flux, which is often
calculated to have an energy density of some 10100 or more grams
per cm3, if the energy were cohered and condensed into mass.
As can be seen, even a VT gain of 1.5 x 106
represents a "vacuum tap" of an incredibly small efficiency, on the order of
10-100 or so. However, the vacuum "river" is so energetic that
such efficiencies are quite sufficient.
We accent that the barium ferrite magnetic material must
be activated so that stable self-oscillation between the barium
nucleus and the surrounding semiconductor vacuum exists. Although self-oscillating/self-pumped
PCMs are known at optical frequencies, Sweet has discovered and perfected a
brilliant methodology for activating PPCM nuclei at ELF frequencies.
In a resistive load such as light bulbs, the resistive
material accomplishes repetitive phase conjugation. Thus in the resistor,
half the total energy is expressed as photon or dissipative energy in the
external (electron shell) level.
As the excited electrons decay, they emit scattered EM
energy as light and heat. This is an exothermic interaction. The
other half of the total energy reacts in the atomic nuclei, as a phase
conjugative or endothermic interaction.
We strongly accent that, Whittaker-wise, there are two
electromagnetic channels and two kinds of EM:
external EM, the common electron-shell
interacting, entropic, scattering, time-forward kind, and
the internal, unsuspected, hidden variable,
nuclei interacting, negentropic, reordering/convergent kind.
Internal EM travels strictly between atomic nuclei,
normally not reacting with electron shells unless a pumped phase conjugate
mirror reaction is invoked in the nucleus to produce a gain somewhat greater
Thus if we wish to communicate with atomic nuclei
directly, and engineer them directly, we must utilize the internal EM
channel via applied Whittaker methods.
Inherent in the preceding discussions is the possibility
to turn EM energy into gravitational energy of either sign. In other words,
one should be able to utilize Sweet's vacuum triode to produce and
Indeed this is the case. Sweet has also discovered the
special alterations necessary to perform straightforward transformation of
the internal energy in the nucleus to antigravitational energy, producing a
unilateral thrust upward.
Note that the bulk of G-potential gradient (G-force-field)
occurs Whittaker-wise at ELF frequencies. This explains why nonlinear phase
conjugate opticians do not notice direct antigravity effects.
At the optical frequencies at which they work, the
effects are so miniscule that they are negligible. This is readily explained
as follows: In QM, the quantum (photon) is comprised of action (angular
momentum), not just energy. It is rather like a "piece of energy welded to a
piece of time, with no seam in the middle."
Since quantum change occurs in quanta, the decoupling of
the energy and time components, in the continual interaction of photons with
matter, exchanges energy between G-potential of vacuum and trapped mass of
the atom or particle. In this exchange, small increments of time are
continually being formed (and unformed, as photon emission occurs).
Consequently, each mass is moving forward in time in
small incremental jumps, usually of exceedingly small magnitude. However,
the energy and time trapped in a photon are canonical. The greater the piece
of energy, the smaller the piece of time, and vice versa.
So if one wishes to stress the "rate of flow of time"
significantly, one needs to produce large amounts of photons that have very
large pieces of time, and consequently little pieces of energy.
Since the energy of the photon is directly proportional
to its frequency, this means that the lower frequency photons have larger
time increments, and hence endure over many "regular-sized photon absorption/emission
changes" to appreciably stress the rate of time flow/production.
The bottom line is that the standard pumped phase
conjugate mirror can be adapted to produce antigravity at ELF frequencies,
but precisely the same adaptation at optical frequencies will have
With this in mind, the author requested Sweet to perform
an antigravity experiment to prove the thesis. With Sweet's proprietary
adaptation of his vacuum triode/PPCM, the experiment produced rather
straightforward but spectacular results, as shown in Figure 5.
The experiment was performed as follows: Rigged for
antigravity, the 6-lb. device was placed on a scale so that its weight could
be continuously monitored. A special external load box was utilized in which
multiple electric light sockets were connected in parallel.
Then the external load draw was adjusted by merely
screwing in 100-watt lamps, one at a time, with measurement and observation
pauses in between. The output of the device was 120 volt, negative AC sine-wave
power at 60 Hz.
For each 100-watt increment, the load power was recorded
and the weight was carefully recorded. The results are shown in the rather
smooth, classic curve shown in Figure 5.
At 1,000 watts load draw, the previously 6-lb. device had
reduced its weight due to gravity by 90 percent. At that point the signal-wave
(grid) input to the open-loop vacuum triode was only 175.4 microamps at 10
volts, or just under two milliwatts.
EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL LOAD
(HUNDREDS OF WATTS)
Figure 5. Antigravity Test
of Sweet's Adapted Vacuum Triode.
We accent that the nominal two milliwatt input is only a
gating signal. It is the organized, gated vacuum energy that is performing
The experiment was stopped short of actual hovering and
flying due to safety considerations. With the specific adaptation, magnetic
monopoles are deposited in the magnet materials, producing internal tensile
Since no explosive controlled facilities were available,
and there was no wish to destroy the VT, the experiment was terminated at
90% antigravity performance.
It was completely successful, and adequately demonstrated
the validity of the unified field theory concepts utilized in our approach.
A new unified field theory has been developed, tested,
and at least partially verified experimentally. The concepts of the theory
have been applied by Sweet in a series of inventions that produce readily
usable, safe electromagnetic power directly from the vacuum.
The methodology lends itself to formulation of power
devices without moving parts. Antigravity, predicted by the concepts of the
theory, has been demonstrated in actual practical demonstrations on the
Though not discussed in this paper, application of the
concepts and methodology to a large variety of other fields, such as medical
reversal of aging and curing of almost the entire range of present
debilitating diseases, has been previously pointed out. [Ref.
We have also pointed out the mechanism for Kaznacheyev's
cytopathogenic effect, or the induction of cellular pathology at a distance
by electromagnetic means. [Ref.
We have also pointed out the specific mechanism involved
in Priore's device, which in rigorous laboratory animal testing under the
auspices of eminent French scientists, demonstrated nearly 100 percent cures
for terminal cancers and leukemias, sleeping sickness, artherosclerosis, and
other debilitating diseases.[Ref.
We believe we have also produced the concepts enabling
the direct engineering and therapeutic manipulation of Popp's master
cellular control system. [Ref.
We conclude that the concepts we have utilized and
experimentally demonstrated are universal, as implied by any notional
unified field theory.
Our conclusion is that the concepts, theory, and
experiments, taken together, are sufficient for investigation and
replication by the scientific community.
If replicated and fully substantiated, we believe the
work will directly point the way to, and usher in, a new unified field
theory physics of universal application.
As can be seen, the implications of the new approach are
profound. The authors believe they have ushered in the forerunner of a vast
new physics, one which will change our lives, and our view of physical
reality, in ways previously undreamed of.
By mastering, controlling, and gating the vast,
incredible energy of the seething vacuum, we can power our automobiles,
flying machines, and technology inexhaustibly. Further, it can be done
absolutely cleanly; there are no noxious chemical pollutants to poison the
biosphere. With practical antigravity, ships can be developed to cross the
solar system as readily as one crosses the ocean today.
And the ships, automobiles, and technology will never run
out of fuel; the inexhaustible vacuum fills every system, everywhere, to
Not discussed in this paper, it turns out that living
systems, faced with the problem of achieving negentropy so as to maintain
their form in a dissipative external physical reality, have always used the
hidden internal channel for such things as mind, thought, cell control, and
With the new methodology, one now faces the advent of
access and engineering of the mind and life of the observer as readily as
the observer's physical body.
Transmutation of the elements, control of the weather,
lighting and powering our cities and homes cheaply and cleanly, and
provision of plenty for everyone is the vista for the future. We can in fact
clean up the radioactive wastes, rid ourselves of coarse nuclear and
We strongly stress that, with the ability to engineer the
Schroedinger equation itself, the new methodology allows the direct
engineering and control of quantum change, and hence of physical reality
The methodology is extendable to hyperdimensions; nested
virtual levels of the vacuum are already precisely that. The author has
already pointed out the application of this emerging technology to the
absolute cure of diseases such as AIDS, cancer, leukemia, etc., and shown
that the Priore device in France already proved the efficacy of the
application in the 60s and 70s.
We shall be able to rid ourselves and our descendents of
diseases. With direct access to the actual software of life and mind, in the
future we should be able to achieve levels of education previously
unattainable, by directly inputting the relevant software.
Previously we have also pointed out that four nations of
the world are already embarked on weaponization of scalar EM unified field
technology. It is sobering to think that, in addition to having the ability
to make our planet a paradise for humankind, we also will have the ability
to make it a hades.
For that reason, we are doing our best to clarify the
technical concept and the theory in this 1991, hopefully with the view that
humankind will seize upon the positive aspects, and develop and apply this
technology for the betterment of all people everywhere.
Long ago, Albert Einstein said these words:
"It would of course be a great step forward if we
succeeded in combining the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field
into a single structure. Only so could the era in theoretical physics
inaugurated by Faraday and Clerk Maxwell be brought to a satisfactory close."
And Teilhard de Chardin wrote:
"Someday, after we have mastered the winds, the waves,
the tides and gravity, we shall harness for God the energies of love. Then
for the second time in the history of the world man will have discovered
The authors fervently believe they have come upon fire
for the second time, as allegorized by de Chardin. If so, let us all use the
Maxwell's original quaternion EM theory
is contained in some 200 quaternion equations and differs extensively from
the restricted Heaviside/Gibbs vector interpretation universally taught
today as "Maxwell's Theory." See James Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on
Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873. The
third edition is by Dover, 1954.
E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial
Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Math. Ann., Vol.
57, 1903, p. 333-355; "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due
to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions," Proc. Lond.
Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, pp. 367-372. The first paper was
in fact a detailed theory of the scalar standing potential wave that
Nikola Tesla discovered four years earlier, on the night of July 3-4 1899,
being radiated from thunderstorms, which he entered in his Colorado
Springs Notebook on the morning of the 4th. More recently the
Whittaker structure (WS) inside potentials, including the Schroedinger
potential, has been shown by V.K. Ignatovich, "The Remarkable Capabilities
of Recursive Relations," Am. J. Phys., 57(10), Oct. 1989, p.
873-878, without credit to Whittaker or to the presence of such structured
scalar potentials in Maxwell's original quaternion EM theory. These WSs
are universal to scalar potentials; e.g., for the same in acoustics, see
Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Localized Transmission of Wave Energy," Proc.
SPIE, Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed
Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397.
See Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of
Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Phys. Rev.,
Second Series, 115(3), Aug. 1, 1959, p. 458-491. This paper pointed out
the primacy of the potentials. Instead of being causative agents, the
force fields are actually effects generated from the potentials. This is
in complete violation of both classical electromagnetics and classical
dynamics, but it is absolutely required by quantum mechanics. For an
extensive discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and an extensive list of
references, see S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The Quantum Effects of
Electromagnetic Fluxes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(2), Apr. 1985. See
Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in Normal-Metal Rings Exhibit Aharonov-Bohm
Effect," Physics Today, 39(1), Jan. 1986, p. 17-20 for confirmation that
the Aharonov/Bohm effect has indeed been firmly proven experimentally.
It is pointed out that today all potentials are well-known
to be gravitational entities. However, this was not known in Whittaker's
time, and so he himself did not realize that he had actually produced an
engineerable, testable unified theory of electromagnetics and gravitation.
T.E. Bearden, "Possible Whittaker Unification of
Electromagnetics, General Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics: Part I:
Background," Presented to Ala. Acad. Sci. Annual Symp., Univ.
Jacksonville, Mar. 1991.
For the theory of a pumped phase conjugate mirror, see
David M. Pepper, "Nonlinear Optical Phase Conjugation," Opt. Eng.,
21(2), Mar./Apr. 1982, p. 156-183; Amnon Yariv, Optical Electronics,
3rd Edn., Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1985. In a normal triode
tube, the amplified plate signal is 180 degrees out of phase spatially
with the grid input, but in-phase with it in respect to rate of flow
through time. In a PPCM, the amplified phase conjugate replica wave is
in phase spatially with the signal wave, but 180 degrees out of phase with
it in respect to its rate of flow through time. It is pointed out that a
PCM with a gain of unity produces a coupled EM wave/antiwave pair whose
energy is additive in 3-space but subtractive in the first derivative of
the fourth dimension, time. Hence it is no longer an electromagnetic wave
as such, but an oscillatory wave of stress upon the local rate of flow of
time. Hence it is a powerful electrogravitational wave, whose EM
nature is hidden in the guise of a scalar EM potential. It is also a wave
of variation in the local gauge, and of variation in the local ST
See T.E. Bearden, The Phase Conjugate Vacuum Triode,
Apr. 23, 1987, privately published. An earlier pencil draft was initially
Sweet has continued to extend his theoretical treatment.
A formal paper providing the complete mathematical theory of the vacuum
triode has been drafted, is in final review, and will be submitted to a
leading journal by mid-1991.
See Chapter 25: Outlook, "Possibility of Vacuum
Engineering," T.D. Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to Field
Theory, Harwood, New York, 1981, pp. 824-828.
In 1977 Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel Prize for
extending thermodynamics; in particular, for the theory of dissipative
structures in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In Prigogine systems,
negentropy is known to be possible.
Robert G. Sachs, The Physics of Time Reversal,
Univ. Chi. Press., Chicago, 1987.
Note that this moves the entire notion of the charge of
a fundamental particle to a deeper and more extended level. Now the charge
may be discretized, but it is not quantized in the hard
conventional sense. Further, the internal Whittaker structure of the
massless VPF photon exchange of vacuum and mass, which, quantum
mechanically, is what the electrical charge of the particle is in the
first place, is deterministically structured. Note that this violates the
present assumption that all like charged particles are identical; now two
electrons may have either the same or different magnitudes of charge, and
even when the magnitudes are the same, their internal charge structures (Whittaker
structures) and VPF exchange with the vacuum may differ. Also note that
this resolves the severe QM problem of missing chaos (hidden order) in
quantum change. The reason for the problem was the use of Gibbs statistics
with its assumption of random variable change, which a priori excluded
hidden order (and hence chaos) from QM. That was only a special case,
albeit an important one. There are now three QM cases: (1) the
conventional case, where there is no hidden order; (2) the case where
there is some hidden order, and the statistics is chaotic, not random; and
(3) the case where the QM change is deterministic, with essentially total
hidden order. Note that the Whittaker methodology allows one to directly
engineer cases (2) and (3), including the Schroedinger equation itself.
The present second law of thermodynamics is written
only for time-forward entities, and need not apply for the time-reversed
case. Merely viewing the energy-dissipating forward time case in reverse
allows an appreciation of the time-reversed case. In other words, the
second law of thermodynamics is incomplete as presently stated. The
complete law has a corollary to cover the increase in order as the time-reversal
of the system increases. Thus the complete law consists of two parts: (1)
the entropic, time-forward case, and (2) the negentropic time-reversed
case. Since the re-ordering can be amplified at will by a PPCM process,
the correct distinction between the two subsets of the complete law is
important, and applies to real systems.
A.D. Sakharov, Theor. Math. Phys., Vol. 23,
1975, p. 435.
T. E. Bearden, Gravitobiology: A New Biophysics,
Tesla Book Co., 604 Date Ave., Chula Vista, CA 91912, 1991.
C.f. Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John
Archibald Wheeler, Gravitation, W.H. Freeman and Co., San
Francisco, 1973, p. 1191.
E.g., see Richard Kidd et al, "Evolution of the Modern
Photon," Am. J. Phys., 57(1), Jan. 1989, pp. 27-35. See also R.
Chen, "Cancellation of Internal Forces," Am. J. Phys. 49(4), Apr.
1981, p. 372.
A nonlinear material may simply emit a photon, or it
may act as a phase conjugate mirror (PCM) and emit a phase conjugate
replica of the absorbed photon. When the material emits a normal photon,
it measurably recoils. When it emits a time-reversed photon, it does not
recoil, as already experimentally established in nonlinear phase conjugate
optics. The solution to the mystery is this: When emitting a normal photon,
the material does not act as a PCM. In that case the matching antiphoton
which split from the interacting graviton (the graviton that yielded the
external photon) interacts with the nucleus, producing a recoil action
with a gain of one. Thus Newtonian third-law recoil of the nucleus occurs.
On the other hand, when the material acts as a PCM, it also emits the
antiphoton outside the atom to "backtrack" the absorbed "signal
wave" photon. In that case there is no Newtonian recoil of the nucleus,
because the agent for causing recoil did not interact with the
nucleus to produce it.
Richard E. Prange and Peter Strance, "The
Semiconducting Vacuum," Am. J. Phys. 52(1), Jan. 1984, p. 19-21.
Also, under nonlinear conditions, a particle can absorb more energy than
is in the light incident on it, absorbing the energy from the vacuum VPF.
C.f. Craig F. Bohren, "How Can a Particle Absorb More Than the Light
Incident on It?" Am. J. Phys. 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327.
C.f. Pepper, ibid. and Yariv, ibid. For a specific
example, see Mary J. Miller et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(8), Oct.
15, 1982, p. 689-691.
Again, for the theory of the PPCM, see Pepper, ibid.
and Yariv, ibid.
E.g., see T.E. Bearden, Gravitobiology: A New
Biophysics, Tesla Book Co., Chula Vista, CA, 1991, p. 33-36.
Bearden, AIDS: Biological Warfare, Tesla Book Co.,
1988; Gravitobiology: A New Biophysics, Tesla Book Co., 1991;
Analysis of Scalar Electromagnetics, Tesla Book Co., 1990.
C.f. Vlail P. Kaznacheyev and L.P. Mikhailova,
Ultraweak Radiations in Intercellular Interactions, [in Russian],
Novosibirsk, 1981; Vlail P. Kaznacheyev, "Electromagnetic Bioinformation
in Intercellular Interactions," Psi Research, 1(1), Mar. 1982, p.
47-76; N.D. Devyatkov, Ed., Applications of Low-Intensity Millimeter
Wave Radiation in Biology and Medicine, [in Russian], IRE Akad. Nauk.
SSSR, Moscow, 1985.
C.f. Antoine Priore, "Method of Producing Radiations
for Penetrating Living Cells," U.S. Patent No. 3,280,816; Jean-Michel
Graille, Le Dossier Priore, De Noel, Paris, 1984 [in French];
Christopher Bird, "The Case of Antoine Priore and His Therapeutic Machine:
A Scandal in the Politics of Science," Appx. I to Bearden, AIDS:
Biological Warfare, 1988.
C.f. Fritz Albert Popp, "Photon Storage in Biological
Systems," in Fritz Albert Popp et al, Eds., Electromagnetic Bio-Information:
Proceedings of the Symposium, Marburg, September 5, 1977, Urban &
Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1979, p. 123-149; also Biophotonen. Ein neuer
weg zur Losung des Krebsproblems, Verlag fur Medizin, Heidelberg, 1976
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