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Tapping Zero-Point Energy
by Moray B. King
P.O. Box 859
Provo, UT 84603
The hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining
the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The
vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to
activate a ZPE coherence.
Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions
utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested
experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might
induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a
gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to
create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output.
Today's physics might allow the possibility of tapping virtually limitless
quantities of energy directly from the fabric of space.
Such a surprising conjecture arises by merging two separate theoretical
areas of modern physics:
1) The theories of the zero-point energy (1-5) (ZPE) that model the vacuum
as containing real, energetic fluctuations of electric field energy, and 2)
the theories of system self-organization (6-13) which not only open the
possibility of inducing coherence in this energy, but also provide the
underlying principles on how this could be achieved (10).
At first this hpyothesis might seem to be a blatant violation of the
conservation of energy. But the key question is: Does the zero-point energy
If so, a real energy is already present and its conservation would not be an
The real issue centers on how random fluctuations could become coherent. Any
spontaneous coherence seems to violate the second law of thermodynamics,
which is generally understood to mean systems should evolve toward random
behavior, not toward coherence.
This point is thoroughly discussed in the theories of system self-
organization (11,12). Prigogine (13) won the 1977 Nobel prize in chemistry
for defining the conditions under which a system could evolve from
randomness toward coherence. The conditions are that the system must be
far from equilibrium, nonlinear in its dynamics and have an energy flux
These conditions are expressed
in general system theory terms, and it turns out that the already published
theories of the ZPE can, under certain circumstances, fulfill these
conditions. Despite the intriguing possibility offered by system theory, no
purely theoretical discussion could ever prove that the zero-point energy
could be tapped as an energy source. Only an experiment coupled with the
theory would be convincing. This article discusses how observed anomalies
associated with the ion-acoustic oscillations in plasmas could be a
manifestation of a coherent ZPE interaction and in particular, how the
cycloid motion of a a plasma's nuclei might induce a sufficient ZPE
coherence to manifest a gravitational anomaly.
This article also highlights an invention which utilizes the abrupt rotation
of electric fields to cause an hypothesized pair production of virtual
charges from the vacuum energy across a macroscopic system. The invention
reportedly outputs excessive power while free running. The invention
reportedly outputs excessive power while free running, and its full
disclosure may constitute an experiment which could be repeated by the
THE FABRIC OF SPACE
Does the fabric of empty space really contain a plenum of energy? This
question has been debated throughout the history of science.
The early scientists through the 19th century believed in the existence of
an ether, which was modeled as a material substance that could support the
wave propagation of light.
The famous Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect the expected ether
wind produced by the earth's motion through it. At the turn of the cnetury
Einstein used this result to support the theory of special relativity. When
this became accepted, the scientific community rejected the existence of the
ether. Thus classical physicists came to consider the vacuum of space to be
The classical model was only to last until the 1930's when quantum mechanics
became accepted. From quantum mechanics arose a mathematical term in the
description of the ground state of any oscillating system called the zero-point
The term "zero-point" refers to zero degrees Kelvin which means this energy
exists even in the absence of all heat. The energy was interpreted as being
INHERENT TO THE FABRIC OF SPACE ITSELF.
Dirac (14) showed how electron-positron pair production could arise from the
vacuum fluctuations and quantum electrodynamics was born.
The Heisenberg uncertaintly principle allowed quantum mechanical systems to
"borrow" this energy for short periods of time. The ether came back into
science not modeled as a material substance but rather as a randomly
fluctuating energy. Could a space filled with fluctuations of electric flux
be consistent with special relativity? Boyer (15) showed that, by invoking
the postulate of Lorentz invariance, the spectral energy density p of the
zero-point fluctuations must have the particular form as a function of
frequency w : p(w) = kw3 where the constant k is related to Planck's
constant. This result gives a quantitative basis to the theory of random
electrodynamics which strives to show that quantum mechanical effects arise
FROM MATTER'S INTERACTION WITH THE ZERO-POINT ENERGY.
This cubic frequency relation implies an absurd result: the energy density
of the ZPE AT EACH POINT IN SPACE is INFINITE!
A similar problem plagues quantum electrodynamics where infinities are
renormalized away. Some type of frequency cutoff is required to create a
finite, quantitative theory.
Wheeler (16) applied the theory of general
relativity to the ZPE to create a natural cutoff in his theory of
geometrodynamics. In general relativity the fabric of space curves as a
function of energy density. When the density becomes sufficiently great,
space pinches like it's forming a black hole. This gives rise to the
formation of hyperspace structures that Wheeler called "wormholes." His
calculation yielded microscopic channels on the order of 10-33 (to the
-33rd) cm having a (mass equivalent) energy density of 10+94 (to the 94th)
The resulting view is that the fabric of space consists of constantly
forming and annihilating pairs of microscopic "mini" blackholes and
whiteholes which channel electric flux into and out of our three dimensional
space. These mini holes manifest dynamics which could be modeled as a
turbulent, virtual plasma that Wheeler calls the "quantum foam." In this
view the elementary particles are like bubbles or vortices arising from the
dynamics of the vacuum energy.
Is it possible to tap this energy? At first the answer seems to be no since
it is extermely difficult experimentally to observe its existence; the
energy is ubiquitous and a detector REQUIRES AN ENERGY DIFFERENCE to measure
field strength. However, the theories of quantum electrodynamics indicate
that all the elementary particles are dynamically interacting with the ZPE
resulting in vacuum polarization. In particular, quantum electrodynamics
shows that the different elementary particles polarize the vacuum
In a first order model, electrons, especially conduction band electrons,
exhibit an ethereal cloud-like random interaction with the zero-point
fluctuations and are effectively in thermodynamic equilibrium with it. No
net energy would be absorbed by this type of system.
However, an atomic nucleus exhibits a pattern of quasi-stable vacuum
polarization channels converging toward it. This may allow the possibility
of driving the nucleus-ZPE system off of equilibrium by abrupt motion. This
fulfills the first condition for system self-organization.
How the other conditions could be fulfilled as well can be understood by
modeling the ZPE as a virtual plasma. Like a plasma, it is nonlinear in its
dynamical behavior, it may be driven off of equilibrium by the abrupt motion
of nuclei, and it might well be sustained by an energy flux intersecting our
three dimensional space from a higher dimensional superspace (20-22).
This last point is clearly the most speculative. If true, it offers
VIRTUALLY LIMITLESS ENERGY.
It can best be supported by noting that there are interpretations of quantum
mechanics and relativity theory which imply the existence of a physically
real, higher dimensional space, and the notion of superspace is well
discussed in the physics literature (23-25).
It is interesting to note that some authors (26,27) recognized that the
mathematical analysis of a nonlinear system interacting with the ZPE shows
that energy could be extracted, but they are skeptical due to the lack of
The real proof that the zero-point energy could become an energy source can
only come from a repeatable experiment. The above discussion suggests that
the motion of a plasma's nuclei might be an effective transducer for
interacting with the ZPE.
The coherent oscillations of nuclei in a plasma is known as the ion-acoustic
mode, and it has been associated with anomalous plasma behavior including
run-away electrons (28), anomalous heating (29-31), anomalous resistance
(32), and high frequency voltage spikes (33-35). Could these anomalies be
associated with a direct ZPE interaction manifesting a macroscopic vacuum
The inventor T. Henry Moray (37) stressed the importance of ion oscillations
in the plasma tubes of his invention that produced 50 kilowatts of anomalous
electrical power in the 1930's. His well-witnessed invention could not be
explained with the physics of that time, and puzzled all the scientists who
investigated his device.
Another experiment where coherent oscillations of nuclei could be the source
of anomalous heat is the electrolytic "cold fusion" experiment of Pons and
In this experiment deuterium nuclei occupy shallow potential wells in the
crystal lattice sites of the palladium. Here the nuclei are free to
oscillate (39), but they generally diffuse to adjacent, vacant lattice sites
However, under the conditions of deuterium supersaturation all the lattice
sites are occupied, and the deuterons within a crystal grain of palladium
could then undergo synchronous oscillations similar to ion-acoustic heat
(41). This hypothesis predicts the effect would be greatly enhanced by
supersaturating a pure single crystal of palladium and that an electrical
pulse could trigger the oscillation.
It might also be possible to generate anomalous heat with experiments using
ordinary water (although it is more difficult to constrain protons to the
lattice sites than deuterons). The difficulty in repeating the heat anomaly
of the Pons/Fleischmann experiment is probably the first repeatable
experiment in which at least some other scientists are able to produce an
energy anomaly (42).
Other investigators have claimed energy anomalies associated with plasma
behavior. The Russian plasma physicist, Chernetskii, from his observations
of anomalous energetic plasma activity explains that under appropriate
conditions a plasma interacts directly with the ZPE (43).
He has recently claimed to have created a plasma device that absorbs energy
from the vacuum fluctuations when the plasma's particles undergo cycloid
Likewise the inventions of Searle (44), Spence (45), and Papp (46) also have
cycloid particle motion in the plasmas within their energy producing devices.
Ball lighting (47) is a possible candidate for a ZPE interaction since it
has been modeled as a vortex ring plasmoid (48). The energy source needed to
maintain its persistence must be localized within the ball since it has been
observed inside of shielded environments such as aircraft and submarines.
In a submarine a particular type of circuit breaker has launched it on
multiple occasions (49). The vortex ring model for ball lightning has its
plasma particles undergoing precessional cycloid motion, and it might
therefore be an example of a zero-point energy coherence occurring in nature.
It may also be possible to induce the cycloid motion of nuclei within solid
state magnetic materials such as ferrites. When a ferrite's magnetic domain
wall moves, the microscopic magnetic dipoles rotate (50). This supports the
propagation of nonlinear spinor waves through the ferrite (51). This wave
directly couples to the ferrite lattice causing an elastic, acoustical
spinor wave (52). This results in the helical motion of the ferrite's nuclei.
If such motion induces a zero-point energy coherence, then nearby pickup
coils might detect anomalous energy. Such a hypothesis may help explain the
"free energy" inventions of Coler (53) and Sweet (54).
The plasma vortex-ZPE hypothesis could also be applied to the water vortex
studies of Schauberger (55). He claimed that water forced to precess through
specially shaped spiralling tubes induced an energy anomaly causing a
peculiar bluish glow to appear at the center of the vortex.
Also the gyroscope studies by Laithwaite (56) may fit the vortex hypothesis.
Laithwaite observed that a precessing gyroscope that was displaced along a
particular cycloid path would exhibit an inertial/gravitational anomaly.
The expectation of gravitational anomalies associated with coherence of the
zero-point energy arises directly from general relativity.
Gravity is described as curvature of the space-time metric induced by the
stress-energy tensor (57). If the zero-point energy has the enormous density
as predicted by Wheeler, then even a slight coherence in its activity could
curve the local space-time metric producing measurable gravitational or time
An experiment which altered the pace of time near the apparatus would
suggest the ZPE's involvement (58). Puthoff (59) has recently quantitatively
explored Sakarov's suggestion that gravity is intimately coupled to the
behavior of the ZPE by proposing a model in which gravity directly arises
from the action of the zero-point fluctuations.
An experiment which produced a gravitational or time anomaly would yield
evidence that the ZPE is being cohered because the ZPE is the only energy
appreciable enough to induce a space-time metric curvature by technological
How could such an anomaly be demonstrated experimentally? The ideas
presented in this paper suggest the following preliminary experiment:
A piping system is shaped into a vortex ring (Figure 1) whose poloidal/toroidal
size ratio is similar to the plasmoids observed by Bostick (60) in his
Charged fluid or plasma is pumped to circulate rapidly through the vortex
ring. Note that the plasma is forced to undergo an effective precessional
motion (a poloidal rotation closing into a toroidal rotation).
A weight change in the apparatus or a change in the pace of time nearby the
apparatus would support the proposed conjecture that an ionic plasma vortex
could induce a ZPE coherence.
(since we cannot duplicate the drawing in this file, Figure 1 shows a donut
shape viewed from the top and generated by loops as if a Slinky toy was
connected end to end "Vortex ring mainfesting precessional flow")
An oscillatory ion-acoustic plasma vortex ring can be created with an
electrical circuit. A toroidal coil is wound on a ferrite core with wire
whose insulator is coated with a mildly radioactive material.
Alternatively the coil could be bombarded by ionizing radiation (61). The
radiation only needs to be strong enough to ionize the air or gas near the
surface of the toroidal coil, and it maintains a cold plasma.
The coil is then tuned to resonate at the ion-acoustic frequency of this
plasma by adding an appropriate capacitance to the circuit. A properly tuned
resonance yields ion oscillatory displacement currents in the medium
surrounding the wire which acts as a wave guide.
During resonance further ionization could accrue shifting the ion-acoustic
frequency. This nonlinear effect can be stabilized with a parallel, variable
capacitor controlled via feedback by the magnitude of the output current.
The capacitance is automatically adjusted to maximize the output current
unless it becomes too large at which point the system is intentionally
detuned. If the ion-acoustic plasma vortex were to interact coherently with
the ZPE, then anomalous energy production might occur in such a system.
MACROSCOPIC PAIR PRODUCTION
The plasma vortex ring motif can be applied directly to the virtual ZPE
plasma to create a model of an elementary charge. Bostick showed that a pair
of plasmoid vortex rings could arise from an abruptly excited, turbulent
In a similar fashion could electron-positron pair production arise as vortex
rings from the ZPE modeled as a virtual plasma? In this analogy the charge
would be associated with the helicity of the electric flux circulation on
the vortex ring (62,63).
Likewise the electric (E) field lines emanating from a charge could be
modeled as helical filaments (64). Here the helical filaments would
originate from the charge and be sustained continuously by electric flux
flowing at the speed of light. This model of E field lines offers a dynamic
possibility for activating the vacuum energy.
If an E field line alone could be abruptly rotated, it would mimic the
precessional flow of a vortex ring section (Figure 2) and consequently would
manifest for an instant virtual charge at a macroscopic level. This would
constitute a coherence in the zero-point energy.
(Figure 2 shows a 1 quarter section of the doughnut shape as described in
Figure 1 "Vortex filament model of abruptly rotated E field line")
An experiment in which E field lines are abruptly rotated might yield
excessive energy from the resulting voltage transients.
Such an experiment has already been done, and its description is essentially
the invention by Hyde (65). Hyde uses rapidly spinning segmented rotors to
abruptly cut E field lines, and his invention is reported to output power
TEN TIMES THE INPUT!
The invention consists of a pair of excitor plates, a pair of segmented
rotors and a pair of segmented stators (Figure 3). Charge is free to migrate
on the conductive surfaces comprising the rotors and excitor plates, but on
the stators the adjacent, conductive segments are electrically insulated
from each other.
(Figure 3 consists of 3 parts, the first shows a simple circle labelled
EXCITOR PLATE, the second shows a disk segmented into 3 section similar to
the symbol for atomic hazard and labelled SEGMENTED ROTOR and the third
shows a circle sectioned into 6 areas much like a pie chard evenly divided
into 6 sections, it is labelled SEGMENTED STATOR "Simplified version of
excitor, rotor and stator")
The components are connected as shown in the side view (Figure 4).
E R S S R E
- ³ + ³ ³ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ P ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÙ ³ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ / /^\ ³ - ³ +
³ ========================|=============== ³
³ ³ | / ³ ³
- ³ + ³ \ ___/ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ P ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÙ ³ - ³ +
- ³ + ³ ³ - ³ +
E = EXCITOR PLATE
R = ROTOR SEGMENT
S = STATOR SEGMENT
P = PULSE RECTIFIER
E = EXCITOR PLATE
R = ROTOR SEGMENT
S = STATOR SEGMENT
P = PULSE RECTIFIER
Figure 4. Connection of components (side view)
An external voltage source charges the excitor plates which provide an
electrostatic polarization field. Insulation on the device's negatively
charged surfaces insures that no current leaks from the excitor plates and
little power is drwan from the charging voltage source.
The rotors are electrically connected to each other through a conductive
shaft which is spun by an electric motor (not shown).
The rotors in the patent description were electrically connected by brushes
to their adjacent stators, but Hyde has since improved his invention by
removing these contacts (66). The field from the excitor plates induces a
polarization between the connected rotors.
The segments on both rotors are aligned to allow them to shield an aligned
pair of stator segments. As the rotor spins, aligned stator segments are
ALTERNATELY EXPOSED and SHEILDED from the excitor polarization field.
Each stator segment is electrically connected to its counterpart on the
other stator through a PULSE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT in which the transient
voltage pulses are stepped down and then channeled to a combining rectifier
output circuit (not shown).
It is a surprise that such a simple device as Hyde's could output anomalous
power. An analysis using just classical physics would predict that the
voltage induced across a stator segment pair would swing between zero and
the excitor plate voltage since this is the steady state limit for the
shielded and exposed conditions. This is observed when the rotor is spun
However, when the rotor is spun on the order of 6000 rpm, a 3 KV potential
across the excitor plates yields stator pulses in excess of 300 KV with a
very small drag on the rotor (67).
How the ZPE could be cohered by the abrupt field cutting from the rotors is
illustrated in the top view sequence in Figure 5.
- ³<---------³ + ³<---------³ + ³<---------³ + ³ S ³<------------------³ +
³<------------------³ + ³<------------------³ + E ³ ³ R ³<---------³ +
³<---------³ + ³<---------³ + S ³ ³ /³ + ³<-\ / /³ + ³<-\ \_________/ / /³ +
³<-\ \_________/ / \_________/ E ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ R S ³<---------³ + /³ +
³<---------³ + //³ + ³<---------³ + ///³ + /// ||| ||| VVV
Figure 5. Abrupt E field cuting sequence (top view)
During the exposed condition, current flows to charge the stator segment
pair. Under rapid spin, the rotor blade cuts through the gap quicker than
the charge can leave the stator segment due to the current's momentum from
residual inductance of the connecting circuit.
The charge remains on the stator segment during the instant its E field
lines are cut resulting in their abrupt rotation. If such an abrupt rotation
of E field lines manifests virtual charge from the vacuum energy, then this
charge would greatly augment the potential across the stator segment pairs
and yield a more vigourous voltage transient.
Note that opposite virtual charge is created simultaneously on the outer
surfaces of the connected stator segments. Quantum electrodynamics allows
virtual charge pair production from the ZPE as long as charge is conserved.
This analysis of Hyde's invention suggests virtual charge pair production in
the macroscopic realm.
The resulting transient zero-point energy coherence accelerates the charges
of the stator segment circuit, and the system outputs anomalously excessive
Applying the principles of system self-organization to the theories of the
zero-point energy suggests that an appropriate system might be able to
induce a coherence in the action of the zero-point energy.
Quantum electrodynamics shows that the ZPE intimately interacts with the
various elementary particles with differing vacuum polarization dynamics.
The vacuum polarization description of atomic nuclei suggests that abrupt,
synchronous motion of ions or nuclei may be a good candidate for coherent
vacuum energy activation.
The observed anomalies associated with the ion-acoustic oscillations of a
plasma might be evidence for this. Further circumstantial evidence may arise
from the claims of different investigators and inventors whose devices
exhibit a common modus operandi: They utilize coherent, synchronous motion
of ions or nuclei.
The largest claims are associated with devices that produce cycloid or
precessional motion of nuclei. This leads to the hypothesis that a
POSITIVELY CHARGED PLASMA VORTEX MIGHT INDUCE A ZPE COHERENCE.
The idea can be experimentally explored by rapidly circulating a charged
plasma or fluid through a vortex ring piping system and looking for a
gravitational or time variation since there is a recognized theorectical
connection between gravity and the action of the zero-point energy.
Since vortex ring plasmoid pair production is observed in turbulent plasmas,
modeling the ZPE as a turbulent, virtual plasma supports the vortex ring
model for elementary charge and the vortex filament model for electric field
Such a model predicts that the abrupt rotation of electric field lines would
manifest virtual charge from the vacuum energy.
Experimental support that macroscopic, virtual charge pair production might
provide energy directly from the ZPE arises from Hyde's fully disclosed
invention. It appears imperative that Hyde's invention be replicated, for
only a repeating experiment could prove that it is possible to tap the zero-point
energy as an energy source.
The help of Oliver Nichelson, Adrea Powell and Carl Rhoades is gratefully
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England, 1989; pp. 258-262.
C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, J.A. Wheeler, GRAVITATION, Freeman, NY 1970.
Chapters 43 and 44 discuss the zero-point energy.
N.A. Kozyrev, "Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time,"
Joint Publication Research Service, Arlington, VA, 1968.
H.E. Puthoff, "Gravity as a Zero-Point Fluctuation Force," Phys. Rev. A
W.H. Bostick, "Experimental Study of Plasmoids," Phys. Rev. 106(3),
P.M. Brown, "Apparutus for Direct Conversion of Radioactive Decay Energy to
Electrical Energy," U.S. Patent No. 4,835,433 (1989).
W.H. Bostick, "The Gravitational Stabilized Hydrodynamic Model of the
Elementary Particle," Gravity Research Foundation, New Boston, NH, 1961.
N.J. Medvedeff, NUCLEAR DYNAMICS, privately published, Hanover, MA, 1961.
J.J. Thompson, RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS, Cambridge University Press,
1936; pp. 94, 369.
W.W. Hyde, "Electrostatic Energy Field Power Generating System," U.S. Patent
No. 4,897,592 (1990).
W.W. Hyde, private communication, April 1991.
W.W. Hyde, private communication, April 1991. A 1987 prototype containing
approximately 2000 capacitors and diodes exhibited the following
No. rotor segments - 240
No. stator segments- 480
Rotor speed- 6000 rpm
Excitor plate voltage-3 KV DC
Output voltage-602 VDC
Output current-38 amps
Output power-22.9 KW
Input power-2.4 KW
Net output power while free running-20.5 KW
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