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## The 7 Types of "Scalar Waves"

11/26/99 by Rick Andersen

One of my never-ending quests at this Web page is to try and unravel the mysteries behind Thomas Bearden's "Scalar Waves"... What are they, exactly, and how do you go about making them? After studying so much of his work, scouring the Net and alt-sci sources, and talking to people about the subject, I slowly began to see that there are not one, but several variations on the Scalar theme. Some of them are dissenting viewpoints, and some are Bearden himself evolving his Scalar EM (now called Energetics). Lately I have added my own two cents, in the form of computer models of apparently "new" types of waves that I think fit the "scalar" category. Here's my summary of the 7 types of "scalar" waves you'll find out there. Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to understand them all, and then find out which, if any, is the "right" one!

### 1) Outphased waves

In Tom Bearden's earliest books, the "scalar wave" was described as being composed of a pair of "normal" transverse waves, travelling together in the same direction, but each having its electric and magnetic field vector 180 degrees out of phase with those of its partner, so that the fields all superpose to zero and are no longer detectable at all. This would be accomplished by delaying one wave by 180 electrical degrees; when the two waves superpose, one wave's electric field vectors would point "up" in a given moment of time, while the other wave's would point "down" at that same time, leaving a net E-field of zero. The perpendicular magnetic field vectors would likewise counteract each other. Outphased, nulled, or cancelled, in other words, as far as the "target" (toward which the overlapping waves are traveling) is concerned.

Yet, we were not to believe that 'that was the end of that', electromagnetically speaking; instead we read that the aether itself-- pure spacetime-- was now the thing being rhythmically "stressed" by the invisible scalar wave, and that this stress represented a structure or "patterning in spacetime" that was essentially electrogravitational. In plain English, to make a gravity wave you cancel out two normal electromagnetic waves to a "zero vector". What gets confusing, as you follow the Bearden literature through the years, is just WHICH vectors must be zeroed; if it's the E and B (or H) fields, then that means the waves are traveling together in the same direction. If the 3rd axis-- the Poynting Vector-- is the one that must be zeroed, then we have to make the waves travel into each other from opposite directions (counterpropagate). But if, like Bearden, you don't believe that free-space waves are transverse at all, but longitudinal, then what? The waters become murky.

But returning to the first view, where two out-of-phase waves travel together as a zero-vector pair... This is the view of scalar energy that is most often represented by "alt-sci" researchers and "New Age" gimmick-makers who are all basically winding coils in a way that causes the coil's magnetic field to be cancelled out. The prevailing opinion is that cancelling the B-field in this way leaves the A-field (magnetic vector potential) and any other "electric"-like fields that may exist, free to radiate outward from the non-inductive coil; the reference here is to William Hooper's "motional electric field" as well as Wilbert Smith's "Tempic field" (also referred to as a "time-stressing" or "tensor" field). Most of the alt-sci underground believe that such coils produce energies ("CHI", "orgone", etc.) that may affect life processes, and/or gravity fields and/or time-warping energies. The thing that bothers me most is that nobody has proven any of this, in the 30 or so years that these "designs" have been around. Instead, we always hear that "psychics" and "clairvoyants" seem to be the only ones "gifted" enough to see or feel the energies emanating from such coils. As I'm fond of saying, and to paraphrase Bearden, that ain't the same as "engineering General Relativity on the lab bench"!

Bearden himself has long-since discarded this view of scalar waves being produced by simple phase-cancellation (although "bucking" fields may still be relevant here); he now insists that the component waves are "in phase spatially, out of phase in the time dimension". Also, that there needs to be a nonlinear mass (such as ferrite core or photorefractive crystal) at the focus of the wave superposition--- just mixing waves isn't enough.

I myself am still wondering about these simple phase-nulled waves, though... If I illuminate a 'target' with, say, 1000 watts of RF carrier wave, that target will heat up measureably, especially at close range. But if I now superimpose another transmitter's beam onto the same target, at exactly the same frequency, coming from the same direction, but 180 degrees out of phase with respect to the first transmitter's beam, what then? Do we not have 2000 watts of power being focused onto that target? Is there not a Poynting Vector (S=ExH) representing energy per unit area, which is the cross product of the E and H field intensities, present in each beam?

Yet if we phase-cancel the fields at the target, do the two Poynting vectors vanish, too? Or is there still a component of energy there, "stressing" the target? Well, the E and H fields cancelled because their respective vectors were pointing in opposite directions... but both of their Poynting vectors were "pointing" in the SAME direction-- so I say they don't cancel... if the Poynting vector is a "real" entity!

So the question is, Is the Poynting vector "real" in the sense of being an independent entity or "energy", or is it just a mathematical 'artifact' that describes the vector product of the E and H fields, expressed as a measure of total energy per unit area in the wavefront? Does it automatically disappear when the E and H fields themselves are cancelled, or can it exist while they're in cancellation such as at a "node" point which is followed by an "antinode" point further down the signal path? Isn't the energy still there, even though we can't detect it while it's at a null point? Else how can it emerge again after that? Something is weird here!

I still don't buy Bearden's complete rejection of the transverse wave in vacuum; yet I do suspect that something is wrong with our present insistence on there being no such thing as a "longitudinal EM wave"... isn't the Poynting vector the very component in the S=ExH triad that has to be longitudinal by the laws of vector multiplication? Isn't it the longitudinally-oriented "pulsation" that we insist can't be "real" because it might mean that there's an aether after all (which is being called the Virtual Particle Flux by today's Quantum physicists.)???

Or is the Poynting vector just a "mathematical artifact", like classical electrodynamics always said about "potentials" vs. "fields", until the Aharonov-Bohm effect blew that dogma out of the water by showing that potentials can have observable effects on charges even when no fields are present? Nowadays the modern view is just the opposite of what it had been before Aharonov-Bohm: the potentials are the cause, and the fields are the effects!

I say that we need to prove or disprove the existence of the Poynting vector as a separate entity, when the E and H fields themselves have been phase-cancelled. It's hard to believe that 2000 watts of power shining on you from a pair of nearby transmitters has absolutely no effect on you just because there's no electric or magnetic field present. Like squeezing a water balloon, the energy is going to bulge out somewhere else.

A reader responds that EM waves ARE longitudinal (ala Bearden) and not necessarily transverse, CAN still carry a vertical or horizontal polarization anyway, and that non-inductive coils DO "do something"...

My 1993 article called POLARIZE.HTM argued that if EM waves in free space are longitudinal and not transverse, then there's nothing in the wave's structure that is able to "tell" the receiving antenna anything about the wave's polarization, so we shouldn't need to orient our antennas in the vertical or horizontal plane to get optimal reception-- and yet we see this phenomenon right before our eyes every time we orient a TV antenna or put on a pair of Polaroid glasses. Turns out that what I thought I'd "figured out" by myself was argued a long time ago by eminent physicists working out the structure of light waves. Bearden's response was so unreasonable, when I asked him about it, that I wrote my sarcastic POLARIZE file as a wake-up call to him and his followers to get serious if they really wanted Scalar EM to become accepted in the academic world. Even though Bearden and I have no 'hard feelings' about that discussion or file, I occasionally get Email "spankings" from Bearden supporters who think I was "mean" and should apologize to Bearden and retract the file I wrote.

No way. I stand by my view that Scalar EM ought to be able to account for the observed phenomenon of wave polarization, and for 'historical' reasons I'm leaving that file online. But we still haven't heard from Bearden on the subject.

In a refreshing turn of events, however, a correspondent named Graham Gunderson recently Emailed me a very interesting defense of Bearden's view that EM waves can be longitudinal and still carry a polarization sense. And, relevant to outphased waves, Gunderson takes issue with another argument-- the one that asserts that self-cancelling coils "do nothing". He says they do indeed "do something", and describes some of his experimentation along these lines. This is what I like to see-- calm, rational explanation and some experiments to back it up.

You can read Gunderson's presentation here.

### 2) E.L.F. standing waves

The lower you take a wave in frequency, the longer its wavelength becomes. If you go to zero Hertz (DC!), wavelength goes to infinity (Assuming that a given 'ray,' in the wave we're examining, travels out in a straight line forever; apologies to Einstein and his curved space, just for now!). If you live on planet Earth with a circumference of about 25,000 miles, and if you assume that low-frequency waves curve/refract around the planet (inside the earth-ionosphere "waveguide"), a wave whose frequency is about 7.5 Hz will have a wavelength that encircles the entire planet! Since we are like tiny viruses living on a large Earth, from our point of view a 7.5 Hz wave is practically "scalar" since it is so long that we can't measure any significant gradient over any reasonable distance! The 'potentials', however, still rise and fall as the wave oscillates in magnitude. But the wave is so long that the oscillation is more observable with respect to time than with distance (space).

Is this what Nikola Tesla was really referring to when he spoke of 'tuning his apparatus ("Magnifying transmitter") until the Hertzian waves had been eliminated'? Did Tom Bearden read too much into this?? If I'm not mis-quoting here, a researcher named Toby Grotz is of this opinion.

In other words, "scalar" waves may not be some "new kind of non-hertzian wave" at all, according to this view; they're just ELF electromagnetic waves whose wavelength is so long that we don't detect the spatial gradient that we normally find in shorter, higher-frequency "vectorial" waves. And not only would they be low in frequency, but they would actually be compound waves composed of the original wavefront and its returning predecessor (akin to a reflection) that just travelled the world in 1/7 second, as explained below. In other words, these waves would be low frequency standing waves. But still "Hertzian" electromagnetic waves.

If Tesla could have gotten what he wanted-- a worldwide system of power generation based on resonating the earth at its natural resonant frequencies-- then I say that the wavelengths would have been so long that from our point of view they could rightly be called "scalar", as all points for miles around would rise and fall in potential -- together -- instead of being at different points along the sine wave ripple of the more conventional, higher-frequency, shorter-wavelength radio transmitters in use today.

Also, note that if the wavelength fits the planet's circumference, then that means that the half-wavelength point (at 180 degrees, where the sine wave crosses through zero and goes negative) is automatically located at the "antipodes" (180 degrees away, or on the exact opposite point on the earth from where the transmitter site is located). For illustration's sake, let's imagine that Tesla had set up a 7.5 Hz transmitter right at the North pole (one could use a pulse transmitter with a 7.5 pulse per second repetition rate). When the transmitter is turned on, the signal spreads out in all directions (South, if you're at the North pole!) and expands as it travels, until it reaches the equator. This is equivalent to the 90 degree point -- the positive hump -- of a sine wave. With nothing to stop it, the wave continues southward like a "wall of energy" all around the globe. Yes, it is very weak and "spread out" by now, but notice that as it continues toward the South pole, it is now converging upon it, so that the energy is coming IN from all directions to focus at the South pole. At the moment all that energy passes through the antipodes at the South pole, it "crosses through itself" (the 180 degree point on a sine wave) and begins its journey back northward again. 90 degrees later it is over the equator again, but now travelling in the opposite direction. Finally, it all re-converges to its original focal point back at the transmitter at the North pole-- but at that same moment the transmitter has fired off a new wave of energy to begin another 25,000 mile journey that takes about 1/7 second to travel.

What we have here is the spherical version of a plucked string, with the North and South poles of the Earth being the nodal points (or endposts) of the "string", and the "loops" or antinodes occurring over the equator. When we "fit" a wave precisely between two reflecting points, we get energy flipping back and forth in both directions simultaneously--- and that superposition of bidirectional waves gives rise to a standing wave, or, as Tesla called it, a "stationary wave", which appears to "stand still" (not traveling anywhere) while at the same time "flapping" up and down in potential. A system on which a standing wave precisely fits is called a resonant system, and it takes relatively little power to get a large oscillation out of a resonant system if you "ring" it at just the rate at which it wants to be rung. It was on this concept-- setting the earth into a resonant state with (most likely) the higher harmonics of 7.5 Hz, if not that frequency itself-- that Tesla allegedly based his dreams of 'plugging your toaster into the earth itself' and thereby tapping off some of the potential difference between two points where you would put your ground rods/electrodes.

Bearden has mentioned the use of "scalar waves" as carriers of information, where military radio personnel could carry on clear-channel, secure clandestine communications using non-hertzian waves (something like Lt. Uhura's subspace communications system on Star Trek). But this idea seems flawed by conventional understanding-- perhaps it requires unconventional understanding??

The biggest problem with E.L.F. (extremely low frequency) waves as carriers is not the radiation characteristics; although the antenna has to be ridiculously large, these waves can penetrate right into the ground and ocean. The U.S. Navy has used this frequency range to keep in touch with submarines at depths that cannot be penetrated by EM waves at conventional frequencies. But the problem is that such low frequencies severely restrict the bandwidth (and therefore the data rate) of communications. Slow CW (Morse Code, etc.) is about all that is practical. Voice communications would seem to be out of the question. At 7.5 Hz or so, the carrier is lower (WAY lower) than the frequencies of a man's voice, so how would you modulate the output of a broadcast microphone onto a carrier that is lower in frequency than the modulation itself? By conventional understanding, it's impossible; your carrier has to be higher than the highest modulating frequency. That's why the Navy has to use slow Morse code at E.L.F. to communicate with submarines, etc.

Yet retired Navy man Dr. Eldon Byrd (a controversial figure in his own right) is quoted as having said that there is a secret technology that allows one to modulate high-frequency waves onto a lower-frequency carrier. If this is true, it would shed a lot of light on the whole Scalar business, I'm sure! One person with whom I've discussed this speculates that you CAN use a lower frequency carrier than the modulation, if you view the resulting signal via a "constellation diagram" such as is used in QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and other digital data techniques that you find in association with modems, FSK and PSK radio transmissions, etc. I'm still thinking about the ramifications of this. If anyone with digital data knowledge has any thoughts on this, please let me know!

### 2a) A variation on the "Tesla" wave theme -- Jerry Bayles' version

Jerry Bayles is a researcher/theorist whose web page, www.electrogravity.com, describes 'scalar' waves as the kind of waves that exist around a Tesla coil:

The Tesla coil has a vertical electric field stretching from top to bottom of the coil; since it's a solenoid-wound coil, there's also a vertical magnetic field (NOT spatially perpendicular like normal electromagnetic waves). But they alternate in sequence, i.e., the Tesla coil produces waves that are composed of an E and B field that are in the same spatial plane or orientation, but 90 degrees out of phase in time. That is, a vertically polarized E-field followed by a vertically polarized B-field, one after the other, alternating back and forth between the two types of field. Being out of time phase, as well as in the same plane in space, means that no real power is being "radiated" in the conventional sense-- yet Bayles says that a second Tesla coil (acting as a receiver) will pick this "transmitted" wave up, and so information can be transmitted via this non-radiating arrangement. So the energy is something similar to the "near field" in a conventional antenna system. Using a leap of logic that takes some amount of reading to understand, he then goes on to apply this configuration to the hull of a saucer-shaped vehicle, outlining a system whereby one would rotate the standing wave around a craft's hull and thereby create electrogravitational forces that would propel the ship.

I had a series of Email correspondences with Jerry Bayles in which I questioned the conventional antenna/transverse EM wave wisdom (like Bearden does). Bayles' replies helped clarify both my immediate questions and his proposed Tesla coil waves which he believes fits the "scalar wave" definition.

Bayles, by the way, believes there's ample evidence for transverse EM waves in free space and apparently does not find it necessary to buck the entire scientific world with an insistence on longitudinal EM waves, contrary to Bearden and Gunderson's defense of Bearden's view. Click here to read the Emails he and I participated in. You can also find them at his web site.

### 3) Electrostatic/electric/dielectric waves

Alt-sci guru Patrick Flanagan thinks that Tom Bearden makes scalar waves "way too complicated." The way he describes both his Neurophone device and the "Hydronic Wave" device of Wallace Minto, in his series of Emails to Alain Beaulieu [now collected as a text file on KeelyNet and at other sites], makes "scalar waves" to be simply the weak electric or electrostatic waves that a mismatched, electrically-short antenna would emit when driven by a high-voltage, high-impedance output (such as an audio amplifer with its output connected to a "backwards" audio output speaker transformer; i.e., the amp drives the 8 ohm winding, which is then stepped up to 1000 ohms or more). This signal is fed into a 3 or 4 foot-long dipole antenna whose free ends are soldered to flat capacitor-like metal plates. The antenna is "aimed" lengthwise, instead of broadside like a normal Hertzian dipole would be, sort of like aiming a rifle, at a target. Flanagan says that using such an antenna in the receiving mode, connected to the input of an audio amplifier, enabled Minto to actually listen to the "hydronic" or "scalar" waves emitted by schools of fish in the ocean, and that by using two of these devices a pair of fishermen could triangulate onto a school's precise location.

### 4) Bidirectional wave pairs

The prominent mathematician E.T. Whittaker authored a pair of papers in 1903 and 1904 which decomposed any potential (such as a point-charge or even a planet's gravitational field) into a Fourier-like series of waves, harmonically-related, and bidirectional-- each pair (of an infinite number of pairs) composed of counterpropagating waves. Mathematically, at least, then, Whittaker put forth the suggestion that gravity itself might be wavelike or "undulatory" in nature; it is only the superposition of many pairs of inward and outwardly-flowing waves that gives the illusion of a "static" field.

Tom Bearden discovered this work of Whittaker sometime in the mid- to late 1980s and appropriated it as an updated model for his "scalar potential", not always clearly distinguished from his earlier "scalar waves". The new twist given to Whittaker by Bearden was this: One of the two waves in each pair had to be a time-reversed or phase-conjugate wave. Here is where Bearden starts using a model that strongly resembles the Advanced/Retarded waves of Wheeler and Feynman's Absorber Theory, but in the context of a phase-conjugate mirror as described in the nonlinear optics literature.

It is kind of amusing to watch the Bearden literature develop over the years; in order to garner support for his position, Bearden apparently likes to add to names whenever new evidence is uncovered... Scalar waves became "Whittaker waves", which later became "Whittaker-Ziolkowski (WZ) waves" when Ziolkowski proposed "using the product set" of waves (which led to my own computer simulations, by the way). Later still, Stoney (1890's) entered the title, since he recognized that the wave equation can be "run backward" as if time could be reversed-- so now we have "Stoney-Whittaker-Ziolkowski (SWZ) waves".... and all the while none of us yet understand exactly how Bearden's scalars are produced, and he can't tell us exactly how because of nondisclosure agreements! It just strikes me as comical, but I'm still driven to understand the subject anyway, so I go on writing files such as this one.

### 5) Longitudinal waves

As of August 1998, here is Bearden on longitudinal waves:

What I called scalar waves are pure longitudinal EM waves(LW)". "A longitudinal wave is a time density oscillation". "When you make a longitudinal wave, by definition it cannot vary the energy density in 3-space". "That is fixed"."A longitudinal wave oscillates the rate of flow of time itself, about some steady median value". "A pure longitudinal EM wave has infinite energy and infinite velocity". "We don't make those". "Instead, we make a pseudo-longitudinal wave; i.e., a pretty good longitudinal wave that still has some low-level transverse components". See Nimtz experiment on superluminal transmission at 4.7 x light speed (c)."

### 6) Time-density waves

As of late November 1998, here is Bearden on waves:

"The minimum requirement to begin gravity and antigravity studies is to understand longitudinal waves (well, a sound wave is just such a wave).

If you have a transverse EM wave and add to it, its phase conjugate replica, the two coupled together do make a single longitudinal EM wave. It is polarized along the line of propagation, not x- or y-.

If you then take that longitudinal EM wave and phase conjugate it, and couple its phase conjugate replica to it, you make a "scalar" or time-density EM wave, polarized (vibrating) in the time domain. The overall spatial energy is in overall equilibrium in x-, y-, and z-. However, it has a substructure of two longitudinal EM waves, polarized along the z- axis.

In turn, each of the longitudinal EM waves has an internal substructure of ordinary transverse waves, each vibrating in the x- or y- direction or combination of both.

The longitudinal EM wave we are speaking of is comprised of gravitons, i.e., spin-2 quanta, because it is comprised of coupled photon/antiphoton pairs, each photon or antiphoton being of spin 1.

The scalar EM wave is comprised of "supergravitons," i.e., spin 4 quanta, because it consists of coupled graviton/antigraviton pairs, each graviton or antigraviton being of spin 2.

The above is rigorous, although not in present physics in just that precise form. You cannot go any further in gravity/antigravity until you understand that material.

The supergraviton is really the key to antigravity.

Longitudinal EM waves usually interact very little with intervening mass, when just propagating through it. But a little interaction does occur. In that interaction that does occur, the interacting mass immediately phase conjugates and adds the coupled phase conjugate replica, converting the new interacting component to a coupled longitudinal EM wave/antiwave pair, thus forming a scalar (time-polarized) wave for that interacting fraction.

Well, time is energy compressed by a factor of c-squared, so it has the same energy density as mass.

Now that you have some supergraviton interactions, you are invoking the oscillation of very powerful energy changes, and therefore very powerful oscillations of the curvature of local spacetime, for that spacetime directly in interaction (yes, spacetime is well-known to interact with matter, in general relativity) with the mass.

From there on, use your ingenuity. You now have your hands on the control of the actual interaction of the local spacetime strongly interacting with that mass (every bit of it; time is ubiquitous and makes no distinction between electron shells and the nucleus of the atoms; it reaches both).

At any rate, essentially from there you can do whatever you wish to with that interacting mass.

Now with sound (as used by the Tibetans), you already start with longitudinal waves. Also, sound waves are easily phase conjugated. So you can easily make a scalar sound wave, by coupling the phase conjugate to the longitudinal EM wave.

We are interested in the time component, not the energy component. So the lower the frequency (and therefore the lower the energy component) of the photon, the greater the time component (and therefore the component of energy compressed by c-squared so as to make the time).

For antigravity, you are much better off at ELF, etc. Forget all that high frequency delusion. Even with gammas, nobody ever produced any antigravity to speak of yet.

Note that very similar photons (and thereby waves) are known in physics; e.g., see Ryder, Quantum Field Theory, 2nd edition, p. 147+. There you find they advance four photon polarizations; x-, y-, z-, and t. The z- polarization is a longitudinal photon, the t- polarization is a scalar photon. However, they do not know how to make practical waves of these.

Here is the magic, magic process for wave type transduction (took me 20 years to uncover it).

Let TW = transverse EM wave, LW = longitudinal EM wave, TDW = time-density EM wave (scalar EM wave), PC = phase conjugate replica coupling, and (I) = in interference with.

So:

TW + PC(TW) => LW (of the special kind, formed of spin 2 gravitons rather than single photons).

LW + PC(LW) => TDW ) of the special kind, formed of spin 4 gravitons rather than single photons.

To go the other way, use interferometry!

TDW (I) TDW => LW (of the special kind)

LW (I) LW => TW (ordinary EM transverse waves.)

.....We believe that, if we can ever get these new processes into the development stage, the world will eventually take its energy from the ubiquitous flow of time, anywhere in the universe. In short, we will burn time for fuel.

These are "my" waves; at least I've never seen them mentioned anywhere else. I computer modelled some of my interpretations of Bearden's vague descriptions of what scalar waves and scalar potentials are, and then I went on from there to try this and that until I finally found that specific combinations of FOUR waves, not two, seemed to be necessary in order to make "scalar"-type waves. I first modelled this in 1993, but only played with the concepts on and off until I presented them to KeelyNet sometime later, then added them to my own web page in late 1997. Meanwhile, researcher J. Naudin had already taken them and adapted them to a Windows environment, downloadable from his website. (He does not give me credit as the original author but that's okay.)

I'm tentatively calling these waves "quadrature-product waves", because they are made by cross-modulating a pair of bidirectional (counterpropagating) waves, then doing the same with a second pair, then adding (superposing) the two products together in quadrature (not 90 degrees apart in the "north-south, east-west" sense, but 90 degrees apart in time phase, e.g., one pair is made of sine waves and the other of cosine waves). Summing the products of 90-degree time offset waves like this gives 180 degree phase cancellation (the 90's double into 180's), and a "new" kind of wave appears: a bouncing "DC offset" (scalar component?) with a static sine-wave shape of 2x spatial frequency superimposed upon it.

Subtracting the products, on the other hand, or inverting one of the cosine waves before multiplying (modulating) them, then summing the products, gives a completely "static" sine wave which has zero frequency and zero movement of any kind, yet has a spatial gradient-- a kind of stationary "soliton" wave. I have not yet generated any of these waves with actual equipment. But the computer models are enticing and I think it will be only a matter of time before someone (if not myself) is able to design a "transmitter" for these waves. I think we will have some "scalar waves", finally, when that happens (if you'll allow me to indulge myself in some fantasies for the time being!).

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