Time Travel Research Center © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 -Turkey/Denizli
Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
Part 1 of POLARIZE.ASC
by Rick Andersen, April 5, 1993 (slightly revised 7/3/97)
This file is an account of some of my investigations into what is popularly known as Scalar Electromagnetics, specifically as conceptualized by Lt. Col. Thomas E. Bearden (ret.), Huntsville, Alabama. This file assumes that you are already familiar with Bearden's works as published by Tesla Book Company and as listed on many of the BBS's. But a brief synopsis of his views are presented for the benefit of those who are not familiar with Bearden's writings.
Tom Bearden's version of electromagnetics is a direct challenge to the electromagnetics that physicists and electronics engineers are taught.
His understanding of EM, if correct, would open up a vast new physics in which reality itself could be manipulated in ways that we in this last decade of the 20th century can still only call "magical".
As an electronics tech with a broad interest in "fringe science" in general and in such things as the Philadelphia Experiment in particular, I have had to familiarize myself with several "unconventional" ideas and hypotheses.
Tom Bearden's Scalar Electromagnetics could explain many "paranormal"
mysteries in terms of a scientific model. We need to evaluate his work.
TOM BEARDEN'S SCALAR ELECTROMAGNETICS
Very briefly, Bearden's main points of disagreement with classical EM are these:
* Quantum physicists consider the Potentials in the vacuum to be the primary causal agents. Force fields (E and B fields) are EFFECTS of the interference of potentials. Classical EM has it the other way around:
Force fields CAUSE and potentials are the (abstract) EFFECTS. It may seem to be an ivory-tower semantics game, but if Bearden and Quantum Physics are right, the implications are tremendous.
* Classical EM fails to distinguish between CHARGE and CHARGED MASS. The classical EM man says "Show me some 'charge' without some mass to contain that charge!" Bearden replies, "Define for me what charge is!... You can't. You confuse charged mass with charge itself. Ditto with most other fundamental definitions in Physics, such as Vector, Energy, Mass, Vacuum, etc." Bearden EQUATES Massless Charge, Potential, Vacuum, Spacetime, 'aether', Virtual Photon Flux. Zamanda yolculuk © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 -Turkey/Denizli
* Classical EM describes the Electric and Magnetic "fields" in terms of Vectors and Scalars. On the simplest level, a vector is an abstract way of describing something in terms of its MAGNITUDE and DIRECTION. Like "one mile due North". A scalar is described by MAGNITUDE ONLY-- like the temperature of the air in your living room, or the pressure of a gas inside a flask. Of course, Bearden expands on these definitions considerably.
Bearden claims that history has pulled a fast one on us:
What we call 'Maxwell's Equations' are in fact not his equations at all! Maxwell, says Bearden, wrote his equations in QUATERNIONS, a complex number system devised by the mathematician Hamilton, which involved "multi-dimensional" math. On this basis, Maxwell's ORIGINAL EM theory is said to have had implications for more than our three spatial dimensions; TIME as the supposed FOURTH dimension would enter the equations, and, as Bearden claims, had the original quaternion theory been left intact, Einstein might have found his long sought-after Unification of EM with Gravitation.
Bearden says of quaternions what Italians say about Prego spaghetti sauce: "IT'S IN THERE!!" What is "in there" is the mathematical basis for all of the magic things we fringe science aficcionados have always wanted proof of: the means to produce antigravity, time-travel, teleportation, age and disease regression, etc.
* All of these possibilities, says Bearden, were aborted because Oliver Heaviside, and to some extent, Willard Gibbs, late 19th-century electrical physicists, did not understand Maxwell's quaternion theory, and so he 'cleaned up' the theory, condensing the pesky quaternions into an abbreviated and emaciated "vector" theory, which still contains a scalar component, but which component is largely de-emphasized.
And it worked! EM until now has functioned very well, on the technological level, using the deficient Vector theory. Toward the latter half of this century, Quantum physicists such as Feynman began to realize that "Maxwell's" EM (Heaviside's) was flawed in several respects at its foundations. Among the phenomena that Physics has discovered that Classical EM apparently fails to account for is the Aharonov-Bohm effect, which involves "potentials" in a region free of any measurable electric or magnetic force-fields, essentially allowing action and instantaneous intercommunication between widely separated particles in a somewhat mysterious way.
* Bearden points to two relatively forgotten papers of mathematician E.T. Whittaker, written in 1903 and '04, just as Albert Einstein was about to publish his famous Relativity theory (1905). Whittaker's math shows how any scalar potential can be analyzed and considered to be composed of a harmonic series of bi-directional waves, flowing into and out of the potential... something like our concept of "standing waves" but with some important differences.
Conversely, Whittaker's other paper shows that any EM wave can be considered to be the effect of interfering two or more scalar potentials in a given area. Since these potentials exist in more than our three dimensional world (as we perceive it), if we know how to properly engineer and combine such potentials artificially, we can perform some mighty magical feats, such as to transmit EM energy "around" our normal spacetime, to have it appear out of nowhere at a distance from our special transmitter. Much of Bearden's writings go on to describe (speculate on, actually) ominous Soviet scalar weaponry based on this technology. (Since the collapse of the Communist Soviet Union, Bearden's emphasis has shifted toward the extraction of "free" energy from the vacuum and how diseases such as cancer and AIDS may be cured using spinoffs of this Scalar EM.)
* Based on the points mentioned above, Bearden sees an EM wave a bit differently than did Maxwell. Although he faults the world for not going back to the REAL Maxwellian quaternion theory, and thereby continuing to miss the boat that would finally unify EM with gravitation (which Einstein searched in vain for, supposedly), yet Bearden departs from his hero Maxwell on the subject of just what an Electromagnetic wave is; specifically, whether it propagates TRANSVERSELY or LONGITUDINALLY through the vacuum. Maxwell, quaternions or not, assumed a transverse EM wave, because, says Bearden, he assumed a MECHANICAL AETHER, as did most of the 19th century physicists.
Nikola Tesla, on the other hand, did not agree. Tesla believed that EM waves propagate LONGITUDINALLY, as do sound waves in air, through a GASEOUS aether.
Bearden emphatically states that, despite popular opinion, Tesla was right and all of our present physics is wrong on this point.
There are many other points made by Bearden about Scalar Electromagnetics
that differ sharply with the present Classical EM; I think I have brought
out the main ones here. (See Bearden's works for further detail, especially
the file THEORYBE.ASC on the KeelyNet and other BBS's.)
MY OWN COGITATIONS
Now that I'd spent about a year reading and re-reading Bearden's papers, and trying to understand just what he was talking about, I was beginning to ask myself, 'Just how DO we know what we think we know' in Classical EM? Are some of our "doctrines" just uncorrected mistakes of history that have achieved sainthood? Probably. After all, Bearden cites many references from Quantum Physics to support his views. Of course, QP is not without problems of its own, just as is every other MODEL of reality. Ah, how painful and disappointing it had been for me when I first realized that WE KNOW NOTHING IN THE "ABSOLUTE TRUTH" SENSE.
All we do is spin elaborate yarns that we call "Models", which we try to disprove when we are being true scientists, but mostly try to defend fanatically when we revert back to being regular human beings.
And yet, these flawed models have enabled us in one century to conceive and apply a technology that has literally transformed the world. So we like to keep telling ourselves that we're "getting there", little by little. Our models may be quite erroneous, but if they work, we use them until somebody comes along with something better.
And this is what Tom Bearden is doing-- offering something better--, except he is claiming that his model is NOT something new; it has been around for at least 100 years but we've been too stupid to see it, because we allowed Oliver Heaviside and his vector oversimplification to blind us.
Well, I've bought a lot of snake oil over the years, and as we all know, the field of speculative science is overflowing with snake oil salesmen, so I try to temper my tendency to rejoice over the promises of magic with the caution I have had to learn the hard way by having one 'scheme' after another turn out to be hot air. Scientific method involves testing any new hypothesis rigorously; if the promoter of the idea can't take the heat, he shouldn't jump into the frying pan.
So I found Bearden's telephone number and decided to give him a call. (I've found that writing is too frustrating: either they're too busy to answer or they just don't. Either way, you end up waiting for weeks.)
To my surprise, Tom Bearden seemed more than happy to talk about his work over the phone. I noticed that he tended to talk so much that it was sometimes hard to get a word in edgewise, but I appreciated his willingness to spend time on the phone and figured he might be able to clarify for me whatever I couldn't understand from his writings.
We talked of the 'primacy of the Potential', about phase-conjugate waves in non-linear materials, about his friend Frank Golden who appears to be a 'silent source' of a lot of his ideas and who has allegedly built several proprietary scalar devices (no, Bearden wouldn't tell me anything of substance about them).
My first call to Bearden was sometime in November 1992, if I recall, and I waited until March '93 to call again, when I had some (I thought) real questions about stuff I couldn't figure out on my own. I didn't want to abuse his phone hospitality by calling more often.
So the 2nd call was in late March. My question was about his latest papers on Free Energy - The Final Secret (see KeelyNet files FREENRG1 & FREENRG2) that had come out around that time.
The bottom line on free energy was that you needed a "Degenerate Semiconductor" between your source of potential (battery, etc.) and your switching function; from there on to the load you could use regular conductive copper wiring. Bearden was saying here that the reason most of the earlier attempts at building "free energy" devices had given inconclusive results was that none of the previous inventors were using this "degenerative semiconductor" material that Bearden had finally figured out was the missing link, after 30 years of intensive research into the subject.
At this point, of course, I was beginning to wonder just what this latest revelation meant as regards all of Bearden's PREVIOUS books announcing free energy inventors and their WORKING devices, happily extracting free energy from the vacuum.
Hadn't Bearden endorsed John Bedini's battery-motor-generator- flywheel device, claiming that when the battery electrolyte was pulsed at the resonant frequency of the ions in it, free energy was being 'coupled' into the circuit and that the battery was recharging itself?... There was no mention of any "degenerate semiconductor" material there! Bearden's advice (in the Introduction to the Bedini book, available through Tesla Book Co.) was to "have at it" and build the thing, all of you eager experimenters out there, in order to prove once and for all to the "establishment" en masse, which "they" couldn't deny, that free energy extraction is both possible and practical. (Be careful, though: Your battery will explode if you hit it too hard with a voltage spike; the hydrogen gas inside is particular about the magnitude of the charge-pulse. But don't let that stop you. Let's work out the bugs.)
Then there was Floyd Sweet, the subject of Bearden's 1992 papers. (See SWEET1-4D.ASC on KeelyNet for further details on this device.) Sweet allegedly built a device exploiting the properties of ferromagnetic materials to exhibit non-linear phase-conjugate mirror properties.
This thing was supposed to have actually levitated off the bench during a demonstration, but they stopped it before it blew apart from all that "negative energy" it was producing. No mention of any degenerate semiconductor here, either. Just the magic of pumped phase-conjugate mirror theory, integrated into Bearden's earlier explanations of Scalar Electromagnetics as the engineering of spacetime stresses.
Hell, I'd be happy to have PROOF that any one of these earlier devices actually levitated or distorted time or recharged itself forever with no drain on the battery. (How about a demonstration on "20/20" or full schematics for the Sweet device? Oh, that's right: it's proprietary!)
But now Tom Bearden has even better info -- The Final Secret. Golly! When that weird metal called Nitinol first came out, eager experimenters could buy it through mail order. Surely I can expect to see someone marketing "Tom Bearden's Old Fashioned Degenerate Semiconductor Elixir" in sample quantities real soon?
My point is, he encourages inventors and tinkerers accross America to stop believing everything they've been taught in Classical EM and to go and build "free energy" motors such as Bedini's, because, as he puts it, he 'cares about that poor little old lady down the block who is being ripped-off by the Power Companies that be.' So I just want to clarify some details, so I ask questions.
Okay, so now he tells me I'll get erratic results unless I use some genuine "degenerate semiconductor", such as doped copper wire. How does a basement tinkerer like me accomplish this? I know, I'll call and ask. Thus my March phone call.
Bearden's immediate reply was that I needed to "use that mass of gray matter between my ears" and engage a good materials scientist to come up with a degenerate semiconductor for me.
I thought I could put the power company out of business just using parts from Radio Shack. So no one had ever BUILT a device based on this doped copper or whatever; it was simply Bearden's latest CONCEPT which would tend to validate his view of the Potential. Hmm.
A few days later I decided to press my luck and call again. This time I had been thinking hard (I thought) on just how and why we traditionally believe in the transverse EM wave, whereas Bearden and Tesla say, no, there is only a longitudinal wave in the vacuum.
Specifically, I was thinking about POLARIZATION in an EM wave. How does
Bearden's Scalar EM account for the OBSERVATION that EM waves can be
polarized, if polarization is DUE to the ORIENTATION of the E field which
Bearden denies even exists outside your antenna? I wanted an honest answer
to this problem; I was not pursuing this with an ulterior motive, such as to
disprove Bearden. Not at all. I really wanted to understand. Remember, our
Model must satisfactorily account for all observed phenomena. If another
model can explain it better, then "more power to it!" But any Ham radio
operator can verify the fact that something we call polarization does indeed
affect the transmission and reception of EM waves.
MAXWELL and TRANSVERSE vs. LONGITUDINAL WAVES
You see, the genius of Maxwell's insight was this:
Maxwell knew that a changing magnetic field around a wire (which we can measure at low frequencies with a compass placed near the wire) will induce a changing electric field (and an electrical current) in another wire nearby. Faraday had explored this phenomenon. It stood to reason that a changing electric field ought to produce a magnetic effect.
Unfortunately, Maxwell could not verify that experimentally. He assumed that the measuring devices of the time lacked the sensitivity required to prove the SYMMETRY of induction between electricity and magnetism. However, Maxwell was a mathematician with enough faith in such symmetry that he stuck an extra term into the equations that described this complementary electric-to- magnetic effect which was as yet unproven. This led to the extrapolation of a see-sawing pattern of electric-magnetic-electric- magnetic... etc., one type of effect generating the other, forming an ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE whose fields would "chase" each other out into the space surrounding the wire in which the AC current flowed back and forth to generate these changing fields.
Evidently it was because a magnetic field (as sensed by a compass needle) forms at right angles to a current of electrons in a wire, that it was assumed that this 90 degree relationship continued out into the space surrounding the wire.
So the Transverse EM wave, according to Classical EM, consists of an alternating Electric field and Magnetic field at right angles to one another, and at 90 degrees to the direction that the waves are moving out toward (the direction of Propagation).
Sound waves, by contrast, are Longitudinal; that is, the air molecules through which sound travels are, at a given point, first COMPRESSED, then DECOMPRESSED or RAREFIED, such that the density of the air at any given point varies at the sound frequency. The molecules themselves wiggle back and forth in the direction of propagation, first a little bit out and away from the sound source, then a little bit back in toward the source. Overall, the air doesn't FLOW from the sound source to your ear, but the waves of compression and rarefaction are what propagate through the medium from source to ear. You could say that the air "pressure" hitting your ear drum at any given moment is varying--and this is the mechanism by which sound "waves" are transduced into your hearing organs, the ears.
The waves on the surface of a pond also travel out from the disturbing source; but observe closely and you will see that, for the most part, the water itself merely bobs up and down in one place--the horizontal movement is in the WAVE (the position of one vertical slice through the water relative to the next adjacent slice). Water waves, as well as the waves in a plucked guitar string, are Transverse; that is, they move at right angles to the direction of the wave travel itself.
Well, Maxwell's insight was that his postulated Electromagnetic wave, being composed of two 90 degree separated fields "chasing" each other through space, would, like water waves, be a Transverse wave. Unlike water, which only bobs up and down, the EM wave would contain (at least) TWO components (electric and magnetic) at right angles to one another.
If you can visualize a water wave which "waves", not only "up and down", but also "side to side", then you have some idea of what Maxwell was describing.
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