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Electrogravitic Systems - part 3 of 3
Realization of electro-static propulsion seems to depend on two theoretical twists and two practical ones. The two theoretical puzzles are: first, how to make a condenser the centre of a propulsion system, and the second is how to link the condenser system with the gravitational field. There is a third problem, but it is some way off yet, which is how to manipulate kva for control in all three axes as well as for propulsion and lift. The two practical tricks are first how, with say a Mach 3 weapon in mind, to handle a 50,000 kva within the envelope of a thin pancake of 35 feet in diameter and second how to generate such power from within so small a space. The electrical power in a small aircraft is more than a fair sized community the analogy being that a single rocketjet can provide as much power as can be obtained from the Hoover Dam. It will naturally take as long to develop electro-static propulsion as it has taken to coax the enormous power outputs from heat engines. True there might be flame in the electro-gravitic propulsion system, but it would not be a heat engine - the temperature of the flame would be incidental to the function of the chemical burning process.
The curious thing is that though electro-static propulsion is the antithesis of magnetism,* Einstein's unified field theory is an attempt to link gravitation with electro-magnetism. This all-embracing theory goes on logically from the general theory of relativity, that gives an ingenious geometrical interpretation of the concept of force which is mathematically consistent with gravitation but fails in the case of electro-magnetism, while the special theory of relativity is concerned with the relationship between mass and energy. The general theory of relativity fails to account for the electro-magnetism because the forces are proportional to the charge and not to the mass. The unified field theory is one of a number of attempts that have been made to bridge this gap, but it is baffling to imagine how it could ever be observed. Einstein himself thinks it is virtually impossible. However, Hlavaty claims to have solved the equations by assuming that gravitation is a manifestation of electro-magnetism.
This being so it is all the more incredible that electro-static *(Though in a sense this is true, it is better expressed in the body of this report than it was here in 1954) propulsion (with kva for convenience fed into the system and not self-generated) has actually been demonstrated. It may be that to apply all this very abstruse physics to aviation it will be necesary to accept that the theory is more important than this or that interpretation of it. This is how the physical constants, which are now regarded as among the most solid of achievements in modern physics, have become workable, and accepted. Certainly all normal instincts would support the Einstein series of postulations, and if this is so it is a matter of conjecture where it will lead in the long term future of the electro-gravitic science.
Aviation Report 10 September 1954
ELECTRO-GRAVITIC PROPULSION SITUATION
Under the terms of Project Winterhaven the proposals to
develop electro-gravitics to the point of realizing a Mach 3 combat type of
disc were not far short of the extensive effort that was planned for the
Manhattan District.* Indeed the drive to develop the prime mover is in some
respects rather similar to the experiments that led to the release of
nuclear energy in the sense that both involve fantastic mathematical
capacity and both are sciences so new that other allied sciences cannot be
of very much guide. In the past two years since the principle of motion by
means of massive-k was first demonstrated on a test rig, progress has been
slow. But the indications are now thet the Pentagon is ready to sponsor a
range of devices to help further the knowledge. In effect the new family of
TVs would be on the same tremendous scope that was envisaged by the
X-1,2,3,4 and 5 and the D.558s that were all created for the purpose of
destroying the sound barrier - which they effectively did, but it is a
process that is taking ten solid years of hard work to complete. (Now after
7 years the X-2 has yet to start its tests and the X-3 is still in
performance testing stage). Tentative targets ...
One thing seems certain at this stage, that the companies likely to dominate the science will be those with the biggest *(The proposals, it should be added, were not accepted) computors to work out the ramifications of the basic theory. Douglas is easily the world's leader in computor capacity, followed by Lockheed and Convair. The frame incidentally is indivisible from the engine. If there is to ba any division of responsibility it would be that the engine industry might become responsible for providing the electrostatic energy (by, it is thought, a kind of flame) and the frame maker for the condenser assembly which is the core of the main structure.
Aviation Report 12 October 1954
GRAVITICS STUDY WIDENING
The French are now understood to be pondering the most effective way of entering the field of electro-gravitic propulsion systems. But not the least of the difficulties is to know just where to begin. There are practically no patents so far that throw very much light on the mathematics of the relation between electricity and gravity. There is, of course, a large number of patents on the general subject of motion and force, and some of these may prove to have some application. There is, however, a series of working postulations embodied in the original Project Winterhaven, but no real attempt has been made in the working papers to go into the detailed engineering. All that had actually been achieved up to just under a year ago was a series of fairly accurate extrapolations from the sketchy data that has so far been actually observed. The extrapolation of 50 mph to 1,800 mph, however, (which is what the present hopes and aspirations amount to) is bound to be a rather vague exercise. This explains American private views that nothing can be reasonably expected from the science for yet awhile. Meanwhile, the NACA is active, and nearly all of the Universities are doing wokr that borders close to what is involved here, and something fruitful is likely to turn up before very long.
Aviation Report 19 October 1954
Specification writers seem to be still rather stumped to know what to ask for in the very hazy science of electro-gravitic propelled vehicles. They are at present faced with having to plan the first family of things - first of these is the most realistic type of operational test rig, and the second the first type of test vehicle. In turn this would lead to sponsoring of a combat disc. The preliminary test rigs which gave only feeble propulsion have been somewhat improved, but of course the speeds reached so far are only those more associated with what is attained on the road rather than in the air. But propulsion is now known to be possible, as it is a matter of feeding enough KVA into condensers with better k figures. 50,000 is a magic figure for the combat saucer, it the is the amount of KVA and this amount of k that can be translated into Mach 3 speeds.
Meanwhile Glenn Martin now feels ready to say in public that they are examining the unified field theory to see what can be done. It would probably be truer to say that Martin and other companies are now looking for men who can make some kind of sense out of Einstein's equations. There's nobody in the air industry at present with the faintest idea of what it is all about. Also, just as necessary, companies have somehow to find administrators who know enough of the mathematics to be able to guess what kind of industrial investment is likely to be necessary for the company to secure the most rewarding prime contracts in the new science. This again is not so easy since much of the mathematics just cannot be translated into words. You either understand the figures, or you cannot ever have it explained to you. This is rather new because even things like indeterminacy in quantum mechanics can be more or less put into words.
Perhaps the main thing for management to bear in mind in recruiting men is that essentially electro-gravitics is a branch of wave technology and much of it starts with Planck's dimensions of action, energy and time, and some if this is among the most firm and least controversial sections of modern atomic physics.
Aviation Report 19 November 1954
Back in 1948 and 49, the public in the U.S. had a surprisingly clear idea of what a flying saucer should, or could, do. There has never at any time been any realistic explanation of what propulsion agency could make it do those things, but its ability to move within its own gravitation field was presupposed from its manoeuvrability. Yet all this was at least two years before electro-static energy was shown to produce propulsion. It is curious that the public were so ahead of the empiricists on this occasion, and there are two possible explanations. One is that optical illusions or atmospheric phenomena offered a preconceived idea of how the ultimate aviation device ought to work. The other explanation might be that this was a recrudescence of Jung's theory of the Universal Mind which move up and down in relation to the capabilities of the highest intellects and this may be a case of it reaching a very high peak of perception.
But for the air industries to realize an electro-gravitic aircraft means a return to basic principles in nuclear physics, and a re-examination of much in wave technology that has hitherto been taken for granted. Anything that goes any way towards proving the unified field theory will have as great a bearing on electro-gravitics efforts as on the furtherance of nuclear power generally. But the aircraft industry might as well face up to the fact that priorities will in the end be competing with existing nuclear science commitments. The fact that electro-gravitics has important applications other than for a weapon will however strengthen the case for governments to get in on the work going on.
Aviation Report 28 January 1955
MANAGEMENT NOTE FOR ELECTRO-GRAVITICS
The gas turbine engine produced two new companies in the U.S. engine field and they have, between them, at various times offered the traditional primes rather formidable competition. Indeed GE at this moment has, in the view of some, taken the Number Two position. In Britain no new firms managed to get a footing, but one, Metro-Vick, might have done if it had put its whole energies into the business. It is on the whole unfortunate for Britain that no bright newcomer has been able to screw up competition in the engine field as English Electric have done in the airframe business.
Unlike the turbine engine, electro-gravitics is not just a new propulsion system, it is a new mode of thought in aviation and communications, and it is something that may become all-embracing. Theoretical studies of the science unfortunately have to extend right down to the mathematics of the meson and there is no escape from that. But the relevant facts wrung from the nature of the nuclear structure will have their impact on the propulsion system, the airframe and also its guidance. The airframe, as such, would not exist, and what is now a complicated stressed structure becomes some convenient form of hard envelope. New companies therefore who would like to see themselves as major defence prime contractors in ten or fifteen years time are the ones most likely to stimulate development. Several typical companies in Britain and the U.S. come to mind - outfits like AiResearch, Raytheon, Plessey in England, Rotex and others. But the companies have to face a decade of costly research into theoretical physics and it means a great deal of trust. Companies are mostly overloaded already and they cannot afford it, but when they sit down and think about the matter they can scarcely avoid the conclusion that they cannot affor not to be in at the beginning.
Aviation Report 8 February 1955
Lawrence Bell said last week that he thought that the tempo of development leading to the use of nuclear fuels and anti-gravitational vehicles (he meant presumabley ones that create their own gravitational field independently of the earth's) would accelerate. He added that the breakthroughs now feasible will advance their introduction ahead of the time it has taken to develop the turbojet to its present pitch. Beyond the thermal barrier was a radiation barrier, and he might have added ozone poisoning and meteorite hazards, and beyond that again a time barrier. Time however is not a single calculable entity and Einstein has taught that an absolute barrier to aviation is the environmental barrier in which there are physical limits to any kind of movement from one point in space-time continuum to another. Bell (the company not the man) have a reputation as 30- experimentalists and are not so earthy as some of the other U.S. companies; so while this first judgement on progress with electrogravitics is interesting, further word is awaited from the other major elements of the air business. Most of the companies are now studying several forms of propulsion without heat engines though it is early days yet to determine which method will see the light of day first. Procurement will open out because the capabilities of such aircraft are immeasureably greater than those envisaged with any known form of engine.
Aviation Report 15 July 1955
The point has been made that the most likely way of achieving the comparatively low fusion heat needed - 1,000,000 degrees provided it can be sustained (which it cannot be in fission for more than a microsecond or two at a time) - is by use of a linear accelerator. The concentration of energy that may be obtained when accelerators are rigged in certain ways make the production of very high temperatures feasible but whether they could be concentrated enough to avoid a thermal heat problem remains to be seen. It has also been suggested that linear accelerators would be the way to develop the high electrical energies needed for creation of local gravitation systems. It is possible therefore to imagine that the central core of a future air vehicle might be a linear accelerator which would create a local weightless state by use of electrostatic energy and turn heat into energy without chemical processes for propulsion. Eventually - towards the end of this century - the linear accelerator itself would not be required and a ground generating plant would transmit the necessary energy for both purposes by wave propagation.
Aviation Report 30 August 1955
POINT ABOUT THERMONUCLEAR REACTION REACTORS
The 20 year estimate bye the AEC last week that lies between present research frontiers and the fusion reactor probably refers to the time it will take to tap fusion heat. But it may be thought that rather than use the molecular and chemical processes of twisting heat into thrust, it would be more appropriate to use the new heat source in conjunction with some form of nuclear thrust producer which would be in the form of electrostatic energy. The first two Boeing nuclearjet prototypes now under way are being designed to take either molecular jets or nuclear jets in cse the latter are held up for one reason or another. But the change from molecular to direct nuclear thrust production in conjunction with the thermonuclear reactor is likely to make the aircraft designed around the latter a totally different breed of cat. It is also expected to take longer than two decades, though younger executives in trade might expect to live to see a prototype.
Aviation Report 14 October 1955
Opinion on the prospects of using electrostatic energy for propulsion, and eventually for creation of a local gravitational field isolated from the earth's has naturally polarized into the two opposite extremes. There are those who say it is nonsense from start to finish, and those who are satisfied from performance already physically manifest that it is possible and will produce air vehicles with absolute capabilities and no moving parts. The feasibility of a Mach 3 fighter (the present aim of studies) is dependent on a rather large k extrapolation, considering the pair of saucers that have physically demonstrated the principle only achieved a speed of some 30 fps. But, and this is important, they have attained a working velocity using a very inefficient (even by today's knowledge) form of condenser complex. These humble beginnings are surely as hopeful as Whittle's early postulations.
It was, by the way, largely due to the early references in Aviation report that this work is gathering momentum in the U.S. Similar studies are beginning in France, and in England some men are on the job full time.
Aviation Report 15 November 1955
ELECTRO-GRAVITICS EFFORT WIDENING
Companies studying the implications of gravitics are said, in a new statement, to include Glenn Martin, Convair, Sperry-Rand, Sikorsky, Bell, Lear Inc. and Clark Electronics. Other companies who have previously evinced interest include Lockheed, Douglas and Hiller. The remainder are not disinterested, but have not given public support to the new science - which is widening all the time. The approach in the U.S. is in a sense more ambitious than might have been expected. The logical approach, which has been suggested by Aviation Studies, is to concentrate on improving the output of electrostatic rigs in existence that are know to be able to provide thrust. The aim would be to concentrate on electrostatics for propulsion first and widen the practical engineering to include establishment of local field forcelines, independent of those of the earth's, to provide unfettered vertical movement as and when the mathematics develops.
However, the U.S. approach is rather to put money into fundamental theoretical physics of gravitation in an effort first to create the local gravitational field. Working rigs would follow in the wake of the basic discoveries. Probably the correct course would be to sponsor both approaches, and it is now time that the military stepped in with big funds. The trouble about the idealistic approach to gravity is that the aircraft companies do not have the men to conduct such work. There is every expectation in any case that the companies likely to find the answers lie outside the aviation field. These would emerge as the masters of aviation in its broadest sense.
The feeling is therefore that a company like A.T. & T. is most likely to be first in this field. This giant company (unknown in the air and weapons field) has already revolutionized modern warfare with the development of the junction transistor and is expected to find the final answers to absolute vehicle levitation. This therefore is where the bulk of the sponsoring money should go.
Aviation Report 9 December 1955
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