Time Travel Research Center
© 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 - Turkey / Denizli
The most interesting theories
about time travelling have something to do with wormholes. I'll explain it to
you by using a simple example. Imagine the world of a 2-dimensional sort of
worms. They live at the surface of a huge apple they call the 'appleworld'.
Because they have 2 dimensions theirselves, they assume their world to be 2-dimensional
too. They can't imagine 3 dimensions. Now there's one weird worm, Oswald, that's
got very weird ideas. All the others laugh when they see Oswald, 'cause he
pretends that their world is bended into another 3th dimension that no one can
feel. Oswald wants to prove he's right and begins his journey. After a long
time, he arrives at the same place he started from. This proves the existing of
the bended 3th dimension. But Oswald doesn't stop by this idea, he says there's
a shorter way than following the 2-dimensonal tour and he eats a hole through
the apple. These routes are the so called 'wormholes'.
We can be compared to that worms. We know 3 dimensions and a
4th temporal dimension. So we could travel through the 4th dimension using a
Because we can't imagine 4 dimensions, we drop one and we use
a piece of bended paper. The 2 dimensions of the paper present the 3 dimensions
we know, and it is bended into the 3th dimension (representing the 4th dimension).
The tunnel shows a shorter way through the wormhole. It's not that easy to
travel through a wormhole, because big wormholes don't just arise out of nothing.
They're the result of an enormous gravity, and that's the result of a huge
concentration of energy, for example a black hole. In the early 1930's, Albert
Einstein and Nathan Rosen discovered that the gravity hole, in which the middle
of the black hole lies should be bottomless, and that it should lead to another,
hypothetical universe or another part of this time-universe. Such a hole is
called an Einstein-Rosen bridge or a wormhole. However, some problems rise when
we think of using such a wormhole. In the middle of a black hole gravity is that
big that it would tear apart every space ship. Wormholes could be very unstable;
the presence of a space ship could be enough to make the wormhole collapse. You
also need to go faster than light if you want to reach the other side, 'cause
the speed you need to escape a black hole is bigger than light speed. And as a
last problem, time passes slower in a wormhole and stands still right in the
middle of it. It would take infinite time to travel through the wormhole. So it
seems the wormhole isn't made for travelling through time...unless Carl Sagan
In 1985 Carl Sagan sent a manuscript
of his book (about alien civilization) to Kip Thorne and Michael Morris,
scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He also put a letter with
it in which he asked if they knew a way to travel along huge distances faster
than light without breaking the light barrier. Thorne was very interested and
started to find a way. They wanted to prepare a fast journey for an astronaut,
without him getting torn apart or destroyed by a collapsing wormhole. They
didn't think about the energy that could be necessary or if the technical
knowledge was existing. They just thought about the theoretical possibility.
They reached a solution very soon: the wormhole could even be used for time
travelling. It would be as comfortable as flying with an aeroplane, the wormhole
can't collapse, a journey would take 200 days, maybe less. The only problem was
that building such a wormhole isn't possible yet with the science and techniques
of today. But there are two ways....
One way is making the wormhole out
of almost nothing. If we would observe a small part of the universe, we could
see that space looks a lot like a turbulent ocean. That's because of the
fluctuations of gravity, that make the space-bending vary. At a level of 10-35
m (or 1020 times smaller than the nucleus of an atom) those
fluctuations make arise small, short-living wormholes. Some scientists believe
it could be possible to enlarge such wormholes.
Another way uses magnetism.
According to general relativity everything that's got energy can bend space, so
a magnetic field can too. Claudio Maccone claims it's possible to make a
wormhole out of a magnetic field. But for a wormhole with diameter 1 m we need a
magnetic field of 1018 tesla, and now we can only make magnetic
fields of 10 tesla.
Then some common problems arise. How
to protect the wormhole from collapsing? In the middle of a wormhole we need to
place a 'rare' matter, consisting out of negative energy and negative mass.
Before you start laughing I want you to notice that not a single theory excludes
the existence of such matter. In 1948 the Dutch scientist Henrik Casimir proved
the existence of negative energy and the possibility to create and to measure
it. However, the negative mass for a 1 m-wormhole would be minus 1 time the
positive mass of Jupiter (about -1,90 . 1027 kg)!
In spite of all these problems it is
possible for a far developed civilization to create such a wormhole and travel
through time. However, the technical level to do this is very high.
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The Time Machine Project © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 -Turkiye/Denizli
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