Time Travel Research Center © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 -Turkey / Denizli
Time Travel In Space
What Is a Black Hole?
A black hole is a finite amount of mass that is infinitely dense and infinitely small. Yet, this seemingly insignificant region of space exerts such a gravitational pull that nothing can escape from being sucked into it. All energy, mass, and even light, cannot come in contact with the boundary (event horizon) without getting vacuumed into singularity of the black hole. Singularity is the center point of the black hole where it is speculated to be the end of time and the end of space, since all matter is condensed almost into nothingness.
Black Holes, White Holes, and Wormholes
The possible existence of black holes also suggests the possible existence of entities known as white holes. These two entities are the complete opposite of each other. The black hole draws in matter with gravitational force, but the white hole pushes away matter with an anti-gravitational force. Therefore, it was concluded that black holes and white holes must be connected in some way because of their conflicting nature. Many theorists believe they are connected by wormholes. In the 1960s, a mathematician named Roy Kerr came up with a theory that it would be possible to dive into a black hole, go through a wormhole, and come out through a white hole, ending up at a new time and space. The level of force that the black hole forces onto the wormhole is absorbed by the white hole and distorted into another area in the universe. This existing system would constitute the means for time travel. The way the system would work is that an object would be pulled into the black hole and then shot through the wormhole at approximately the speed of light until the object reaches the end of the tunnel where it would be pushed out through the white hole. Thus, the object would emerge into another universe of a new time and space. Many scientists disagree with this theory because they believe that no object can enter a black hole and reach singularity without first getting crushed by the weight of the gravitational pull.
Figure 1: Wormhole time travel diagram
Another theory of time travel is based on Albert Einsteins theory of relativity that states that any mass curves space-time (Figure 2). Imagine the universe as two parallel sheets (Figure 1). Masses in space place pressure on these two sheets which causes the sheets to curve and bend toward each other. At one point, these two space times meet and create a tunnel. This tunnel is also called a wormhole. Through this hole, we would be able to traverse through space more quickly, going from one end of the universe to the other. For example, if we wanted to go from Earth to the star Sirius, it would take at least take 9 light years, but with a tunnel connecting Earth to Sirius, the trip there and back could be made within a lifetime.
Figure 2: The effect of gravity on mass in space
In 1991, J. Richard Gott, a physicist from Princeton University, proposed a new theory of time travel via cosmic strings. A cosmic string is a two-dimensional version of a black hole. Similar to the way that a black holes mass collapses into a single one-dimensional point called the singularity, a cosmic strings mass collapses into a string-like object or in other words a two-dimensional singularity. Physicists speculate that cosmic strings existed as a result of non-uniform expansion of the universe after the Big Bang occurred. A cosmic string has never been found but it is hypothesized that they line the entire universe. The disproportional orientation of the universe makes the existence of these strings highly possible. Matter is dispersed unevenly throughout space where there are clusters of mass forming galaxies and where there are huge regions of empty space. It is hypothesized that the expanses of empty space are the regions where cosmic strings exist.
Cosmic strings are thinner than the nucleus of an atom and embody millions upon millions of pressure. Much like a black hole, when an object passes by a cosmic string, the object will be pulled in by the gravitational force and become attached to the cosmic string. In this state, the object can travel at incredible fast speeds and distort thespace-time that it lies in. The gravitational force on the mass of the object is what bends time, thus making it possible for the object to travel through time.
When two cosmic strings pass close by each other or when one cosmic stringpasses a black hole, space-time is interrupted. As two of either of these entities come in contact, there is enough energy to distort the time curves in the surrounding space. Therefore, time travel could be possible if we discovered a way to navigate around the course of the cosmic string when the space is distorted. Gott proposed that this is possible because the space-time warp would be great enough for a spaceship to be able to travel faster than the speed of light. By maneuvering through the time warp, we could possibly be able to travel to any time and any place.
Figure 3: Illustration of Black hole
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The Time Machine Project © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90 05366063183 -Turkiye/Denizli