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Speculations on the Planck Era
This barrier exists because prior to the Planck Time, during the period called the Planck Era, all four of the known fundamental forces of nature are presumed to have been indistingguishable or, in effect, unified, Although physicists have devise quantum theories that unite three of the forces, one by one, through eras going back to the planck Time, they have so far not been able to bring gravity into the fold. To do so, they must reconcile the laws of quantum mechanics, which operate at microcosmic scale, and Einstein's theory of gravitation.
Bubbling Out of nothingness: Efforts to solve proplem in cosmology often open up a Pandora box of others. For instence, speculations about the universe immediately after the BigBang lead almost inevitably to considerations of what came before. One hypothesis is that the cosmos originated from nothing, or -- more extraordinary yet - - it my be one of countless universes tehat have materialized out of empty space. The key to such assertions lies in in the nature of ''nothingness.'' In everyday understanding, nothingness is empty, a vacuum. But to quantum physicist, a vacuum is same something else again, an inherently unstable condition , ripe with latent energy, in which neither space nor time in the classical sense exists.
Accordinkind to some theorists, the nothingness that precedes space and time my have been the same kind of fluctuating foam as that of the planck Era. Perhaps engendered by the vibrations of some form of protoparticles, these vacuum fluctuations might be visualized as tiny bubbles, like those shown here. Some bubbles would simply appear and disappear, but others might suddenly expand into a whole cosmos. In theory, then collapsed into super massive black hole singularity which then started our Big Bang creation. This further suggest that innumerable alternative universes, each a sperate bubble, might exist next door to ours, un reachable from our own space - time.
A foamy vacuum preceding the Big Bang might have contained vibrating strings - a term used to describe the behavior of particles under the inconceivably high energy of this period. Closed loop fabovel would sweep out some areas and contort others, perhaps bringing new universes into existence and also leading to strange topograhical features such as wormholes (right). Like secret passageways, wormholes might have linked widely separated points - or even separate universes - in the quantum vacuum that preceded the Big Bang. Navigating a wormhole would have been impossible, however, since each end of is would consist of a black hole, an entily of such unimaginable gravity that nothing entering its grip would be able to escape.
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