Time Travel Research Center © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90  05366063183 - Turkey/Denizli  Faster Than Light Travel Some concepts November 1998 NOTE: Some parts of the text are very scientific. You should know the basic principles of relativity and quantum mechanics. This text is written by Marcel van Wijk. There's no registrated copyright on this document. This document may be used freely for anything, including distribution (commercial and not-commercial) and publication in any media format. If you want to use this document, I'm glad to hear it. Mail me at: marcelvw@geocities.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------                     PART I: 9 CONCEPTS FOR FTL DRIVES Since Einsteins general relativity set an ultimate speed barrier known as the lightspeed, many physicians have tried to find out if it's possible to travel faster than light, without violating relativity. We know that it's impossible to keep on accelerating forever. How closer we get to lightspeed, how heavier we become. And not to forget time dilatation: the effect of time slowing down. However, there are ways to break the lightspeed barrier. We will look at the physics and possible technical realization of 9 concepts. CONTENTS OF PART I: 1. Making space into waves, and travel through the waves 2. Bringing points in space closer together 3. Changing the speed of light around your ship 4. Reduce the ships mass to 0 5. Travelling through wormholes 6. Entering subspace 7. Star Trek warp drive 8. Emit or store tachyons 9. Compressing and expanding spacetime ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. Making space into waves We want to travel from A to B:  A                                                                 B _____________________________________________________________________ Then a special modulated gravity emitter pulls space time into waves:          /\              /\              /\         /  \            /  \            /  \        /    \          /    \          /    \       /      \        /      \        /      \      /        \      /        \      /        \     /          \    /          \    /          \ A-------------------------------------------------B __/              \/              \/              \__ By travelling in a straight line, between the waves, the distance is much shorter. Our absolute speed is not necessarily higher than light speed, but because we traverse A to B in much shorter time than a beam of light would do, our effective speed is higher than light. We traverse the waves by building wormholes. Can this drive be realized? We need enormous amounts of energy to make spacetime into waves, and to build wormholes. Antimatter-reactors, one of the greatest known potential energy sources, might provide too less energy. If we can find an energy source which provides much and much more of energy, then it might. 2. Bringing points in space closer together This is very easy. If the distance between two points becomes smaller, then we can travel from point A to B in a conventional sub-lightspeed drive. There is no need for a direct FTL drive. We bring this points together just like concept 1: we emit massive amounts of gravity. But here do we encounter the same problem: we need an energy source which can provide a real enormous amount of energy. 3. Changing the speed of light around your ship We create a bubble of modified spacetime around our ship, in where te physical laws are changed. With a higher lightspeed barrier, we can travel at a speed just below that, but maybe higher than light in normal spacetime. To reach a speed x times less than modified lightspeed c_m needs as much energy than achieve a speed x times less than normal lightspeed c_n. Did you grab that? But we don't know how we must create a bubble of modified spacetime. However, one thing is for sure: we need lots and lots of energy. 4. Reduce the ship's mass to 0 This concept cannot achieve FTL speeds. The speed of an object with zero mass is still restricted to lightspeed. Another problem: massless objects ALWAYS travel at lightspeed, except in a dense medium. If we want to achieve lightspeed, this concept is well. We only need to eliminating gravity, and that isn't necessarily difficult. We can emit some kind of antigravity, if we find a way how. But we want to break the lightspeed barrier. 5. Travelling through wormholes This is a well known concept. Wormholes can make a long travel a lot shorter, because they make the distance shorter:    ________                 ________      \   A o===================o B   /       \    \  \  wormhole   /  /    /        \    \  \           /  /    / - bent space time         \    \  \         /  /    /          \    \  \       /  /    /           \    \  \_____/  /    /           \    \ /     \ /    /             \    \_______/    /               \  /         \  /               \/___________\/     The bent spacetime as shown here, can be considered as our galaxy; our galaxy influents the spacetime continuum in the same way as shown above. To travel through wormholes, we need one at a macroscopic level. Quantum mechanics predicts wormholes, but quantumwormholes will seldomly be greater than 10E-33 cm. We can track a quantumwormhole, and blow it up to macroscopic size. But macroscopic wormholes are instable - they will collapse because of their own gravitational forces. However, if we continually feed a macrowormhole with some kind of negative energy, a macrowormhole will be stable. Until this far, this concept is very promising. But there are still some problems: we can't predict where a wormhole will end. And it is also possible that travelling through a wormhole will take you back in time, causing causality paradoxes. And if we can predict where wormholes will end, and if we even know how to create a wormhole to the place where we want to be, we need still very huge amounts of energy, just like the FTL concepts above. 6. Entering subspace Subspace is a hypothetical continuum, which encloses our entire universe. It has different laws than ours. In Star Trek, travelling through subspace doesn't restrict you to light speed: in subspace, you can go any speed. But there are two problems: 1) Does subspace exists? 2) And if yes, how must we enter and leave it? We don't know the answers. 7. Star Trek warp drive The Star Trek warp drive is discussed a lot in the world of physics. The designers of warp drive have made complete building schedules. It's powered by a tuned plasma stream from an matter/antimatter reactor. Injectors feed the plasma into coils at specific times, causing pulses to run the length of the nacelles, front to back. This peristaltic flow should cause the push of nested subspace fields, and moves the ship forward.    The Star Trek Technical Manual says that the fields couple and decouple from each other at velocities near (but less than) c. It could be that the interaction of these fields, combined with the special frame subspace provides, causes the ship as a whole to travel at FTL speeds.    But we have again energy problems. Without a constant influx of energy, the    subspace field will decay, and the ship will drop out of warp. In other words, you must continue to provide energy to maintain your warp velocity.    The designers of warp drive use matter/antimatter reactors to provide that   energy. If that's enough, we don't know, but we also don't know if subspace even exists. Maximum warp speeds in Star Trek are approx. 7000c. 8. Emit or store tachyons Tachyons are hypothetical particles which travel billions of times faster than light. Their mass is negative or imaginary (an imaginary number is the result of the square of a negative number), which allows them to go travel faster than light, with a lower limit of c. In other words, they can travel any speed, but never slower than light (more physical information about tachyons, see my Encyclopedia: encyc.htm). If we emit tachyons, we need relatively low amounts of fuel for a large speed. If we will travel faster than light, that is not known. If we store enough tachyons, our ship's mass will decrease, and if it's lowered to negative or imaginary proportions, we will travel faster than light with the same mechanism as tachyons do. To slow down, we just need to dump the tachyons, so we will drop out of super-lightspeed. 9. Compressing and expanding spacetime This concept is proposed by physician Miguel Alcubierre. He calls it, just like the FTL drive in Star Trek, the 'warp drive'. At the front of the ship, spacetime is pulled towards the ship. At the back of the ship, spacetime is expanded. The ship doesn't even needs to move.                                 ------->    [SHIP]    ------->       spacetime is pulled          spacetime is expanded In fact, spacetime moves, not the ship. Just like all the other concepts, we need a lot of energy. Miguel Alcubierre proposes the use of a sort of 'exotic matter', which influents spacetime. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------           PART II: ENERGY SOURCES It is clear that we need very high amounts of energy to travel at FTL. Some say that this point makes FTL travel impossible. But is that true? Many people think that we'll find an suitable energy source. In this part, we'll look at x energy sources. CONTENTS OF PART II: 10. Matter/antimatter reaction 11. Nuclear fusion 12. Zero-point energy 13. Singularities 14. Matter-energy conversion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 10. Matter/antimatter reaction This energy source is based on controlled annihilation of matter and antimatter. It is used in Star Trek as energy source for warp drive. If you annihilate 1 gram per second, you get an energy at least equal to the present worldwide energy production in one year. If that's enough, is not known. Some sub-lightspeed starship designs with matter/antimatter propulsion are based on speeds between 30,000 and 300,000 km/s (lightspeed). However, this engines are based on emission of the gamma radiation produced by annihilation reactions and not as energy source for another drive. 11. Nuclear fusion Controlled nuclear fusion of light atoms to heavier atoms. In stars is hydrogen fused to helium, and helium to heavier elements. Nuclear fusion is just like matter/antimatter reaction often proposed as energy source for travelling at faster than, or just less than, lightspeed. It's known that nuclear fusion produces less energy as matter/antimatter reactions Thus, it's not a very serious candidate. 12. Zero-point energy This is a new discovery and a very promising candidate. Zero-point energy is an energy that's stored in the whole universe (in other words: it's everywhere), and is released when the temparature is dropped to -273,16 degrees Celcius (0 degrees Kelvin), the absolute zero-point. In experiments are little bits of zero-point energy released, at temparatures a little bit above the absolute zero-point. 13. Singularities The use of artificial singularities, or miniature black holes, is often seen in Star Trek. It is based on releasing energy from an artificial black hole in the central energy core. In Star Trek: Voyager, we saw that an artificial singularity produces an constant energy flux of 5 terawatt. There's one problem: the gravity of a singularity is so strong, that the ship should collaps by it. 14. Matter-energy conversion                  Based on the E=mc^2 formula of Einstein, which says that the mass of an object is equivalent to energy. If we find a way to convert mass to direct mass-energy, we have found a very huge energy source. This is best shown if we say that a black hole emits only 30% (at highest, 60%) of the mass-energy of an object thrown in the black hole. Black holes are not very good mass-energy releasers. A matter-energy converter is more than 3 times more efficient as a black hole. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------           PART III: CONCLUSION I think it is possible that we can travel at FTL speeds in the future. Tachyon emission/storage is the most promising concept. If we find a way to 'catch' or produce tachyons artificially, tachyon drive should be invented in a matter of a few years. My prediction? It's hard to say when humanity will explore the galaxy in FTL driven ships, but I think that FTL drive should be realized in two centuries. In Star Trek: First Contact we saw that dr. Zephrem Cochrane invented warp drive in 2063. I hope that FTL travel will come as fast as that. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ November 1998 Hiçbir yazı/ resim  izinsiz olarak kullanılamaz!!  Telif hakları uyarınca bu bir suçtur..! Tüm hakları Çetin BAL' a aittir. Kaynak gösterilmek şartıyla  siteden alıntı yapılabilir. The Time Machine Project © 2005 Cetin BAL - GSM:+90  05366063183 -Turkiye/Denizli  Ana Sayfa /index /Roket bilimi / E-Mail /CetinBAL/Quantum Teleportation-2    Time Travel Technology /Ziyaretçi Defteri /UFO Technology/Duyuru Kuantum Teleportation /Kuantum Fizigi /Uçaklar(Aeroplane)