Keely's System of Graduation
All of Keely's system revolves around the introduction of a specific, pure, tightly controlled, complex waveform into a resonating cavity.
That, believe it or not, is the be all and end all of Keely's technology.
When specific conditions are met inside a resonating cavity a stable beam of "coherent sound" is formed, similar to a laser beam, that is capable of reaching into the heart of matter.
By using the principles of an ultrasonic horn it is possible to conduct that beam along a waveguide and enable it to act upon matter outside the confines of the generating chamber.
More of that in the chapter on ultrasonic horns. I am only including it here to show why the system of graduation is vital.
Keely insists that three flows need to be generated that are in precise relationship to each other as to frequency and amplitude.
This is unbelievably difficult to achieve by acoustic means alone.
Going back to my earlier simplified model of his liberator, disintegrator or whatever else he chose to call it from time to time, we see clearly the approach taken by Keely.
Although we do not have any photographs of the inside of the small spherical device he used in later experiments we do have explicit photos of earlier devices that operate on the same principle and were used for the same purpose.
Because of that we can form a fairly precise picture of what its internal adjuncts looked like.
It all boils down to this:
1) An external set of resonators that can be excited by either acoustic or mechanical means.
2) A resonating cavity.
3) An internal set of resonators that are activated through resonance by the pressure waves generated by the outside resonators and conducted through the structure itself.
4) A wave guide capable of transporting the collimated waveform to an outside point to act upon.
The successful operation of the device relies on resonance alone. That means that all component parts of the device must be in harmonic relationship to each other without interference and without the introduction of incompatible frequencies. It also means that all parts must be tuned with utmost precision.
Quite a feat! But it does not stop there.
In order to manipulate the amplitude of specific frequencies in relation to the others multiple resonators for each flow are required. They also must be tuned with utmost precision, otherwise they will generate beat frequencies.
Keely informs us that the sympathetic concordance must be so precise that tuning alone is not enough.
The nearest approach to molecular uniformity in metallic masses is in the wire drawn for commercial uses, gold and platina being the nearest to freedom from differentiation. But even these wires, when tested by a certain condition of the first order of intensified molecular vibration, for a transferring medium between centres of neutrality, I find to be entirely inadequate for the transfer of concordant unition, as between one and the other, on account of nodal interferences. We can appreciate the difficulty of converting such a medium to a uniform molecular link, by knowing that it can be accomplished only by removing all nodal interference, by inducing between the nodal waves a condition in which they become subservient to the inter-sympathetic vibratory molecular link of such structure or wire.
Therefore, it is necessary to submit the wire to a system of graduation in order to find what the combined chords of these nodal interferences represent when focalized to one general centre. Then the differentiation between these nodal waves and the inter-molecular link must be equated, by what I call a process of vibratory induction, so as to induce pure concordance between one and the other. To elaborate on this system of graduation, for effecting conditions necessary to ensure perfect and unadulterated transmission, would make up a book that would take days to read and months to study.
The graduating of a perfectly constructed instrument to a condition to transmit sympathetically, is no standard whatever for any other one that may be built, nor ever will be, because no concordant conditions of compound molecular aggregation can ever exist in visible groupings. If it were even possible to make their parts perfectly accurate one to the other, in regard to atmospheric displacement and weight, their resonating qualities would have a high rate of sympathetic variation in their molecular groupings alone. If one thousand million of coins, each one representing a certain standard value, and all struck from the same die, were sympathetically graduated under a vibratory subdivision of 150,000, the most amazing variation would present itself, as between each individual coin throughout the number, in regard to their molecular grouping and resonance.
The above passage makes it clear that after precise tuning his components must be subjected to a vibratory stream to bring about a more favourable molecular structure free of nodal interferences.
So what was Keely's procedure?
From isolated bits he discloses here and there I believe we can assemble a fairly accurate picture of what he did.
In drawn wires and tubes as well as in spun shells a certain amount of molecular alignment is already achieved by the manufacturing process.
Not so in cast components or in components that have been shaped, say by bending a tube or rolled strip into a ring. In order to produce a certain degree of uniformity Keely used a process of annealing.
He heated the components to cherry red heat and then cooled them down very slowly in a sand bath. The sand had been preheated to the same temperature as the component in order to avoid thermal shock.
It is a well known technique to create uniformity and eliminate internal stresses. Keely describes the process in one of his elucidations.
Having achieved uniformity as far as the manufacturing process allows he now proceeds to tune his components to the required frequencies. By using a vibrating microscope he would have been able to tune them to a precision better than 1 Hertz.
Even that was not enough for his purposes. He then subjected his components to a vibratory stream for extended periods of time. This was to achieve a better, more favourable molecular structure.
As stated earlier, I believe he used a wind chest, some organ pipes and compressed air to generate the frequencies required for as long as necessary.
The final adjustment after mounting was achieved by adjusting diaphragms in some of the resonators of his motor.
Acoustic feedback was controlled by dampening some resonators with small tubes of gum.
As sophisticated as the system was there must have still been some unwanted frequencies occurring which Keely controlled with special resonators that directed a "negatising vibration" at them. Just how he achieved the required phase shift by purely acoustic means is unclear to me at this stage. He talks about it though in places.
This I believe is in essence Keely's system of graduation.
Today there are far more precise and less cumbersome methods available to achieve the same effects, something that I will go into in the chapter on "Design of a Keely Device using Modern Technology", which at the moment exists only in note form.
Hans von Lieven, copyright